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Sökning: LAR1:lu > (2005-2009) > Tidskriftsartikel > Engelska > Linköpings universitet

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1.
  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005 - Data from the national prostate cancer register in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology1967-01-01+01:002013-01-01+01:00. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 41:6, s. 456-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising rapidly in Sweden and there is a need to better understand the pattern of diagnosis, tumor characteristics and treatment. Material and methods. Between 1996 and 2005, all new cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were intended to be registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). This register contains information on diagnosing unit, date of diagnosis, cause of diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor stage according to the TNM classification in force, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis and primary treatment given within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Results. In total, 72 028 patients were registered, comprising > 97% of all pertinent incident cases of prostate cancer in the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). During the study period there was a considerable decrease in median age at the time of diagnosis, a stage migration towards smaller tumors, a decrease in median serum PSA values at diagnosis, a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate of men diagnosed with distant metastases or with a PSA level of > 100 ng/ml at diagnosis and an increase in the proportion of tumors with Gleason score <= 6. Relatively large geographical differences in the median age at diagnosis and the age-standardized incidence of cases with category T1c tumors were observed. Treatment with curative intent increased dramatically and treatment patterns varied according to geographical region. In men with localized tumors and a PSA level of <20 ng/ml at diagnosis, expectant treatment was more commonly used in those aged >= 75 years than in those aged <75 years. Also, the pattern of endocrine treatment varied in different parts of Sweden. Conclusions. All changes in the register seen over time are consistent with increased diagnostic activity, especially PSA testing, resulting in an increased number of cases with early disease, predominantly tumors in category T1c. The patterns of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer vary considerably in different parts of Sweden. The NPCR continues to be an important source for research, epidemiological surveillance of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
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2.
  • Adolfsson, J, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of Flt3(+) lympho-myeloid stem cells lacking erythro-megakaryocytic potential: A revised road map for adult blood lineage commitment
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cell. - Cell Press. - 1097-4172. ; 121:2, s. 295-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All blood cell lineages derive from a common hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). The current model implicates that the first lineage commitment step of adult pluripotent HSCs results in a strict separation into common lymphoid and common myeloid precursors. We present evidence for a population of cells which, although sustaining a high proliferative and combined lympho-myeloid differentiation potential, have lost the ability to adopt erythroid and megakaryocyte lineage fates. Cells in the Lin-Sca-1+c-kit+ HSC compartment coexpressing high levels of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt3 sustain granulocyte, monocyte, and B and T cell potentials but in contrast to Lin-Sca-1(+)ckit(+)Flt3(-) HSCs fail to produce significant erythroid and megakaryocytic progeny. This distinct lineage restriction site is accompanied by downregulation of genes for regulators of erythroid and megakaryocyte development. In agreement with representing a lymphoid primed progenitor, Lin(-)Sca-l(+)c-kit(+)CD34(+)Flt3(+) cells display upregulated IL-7 receptor gene expression. Based on these observations, we propose a revised road map for adult blood lineage development.
3.
  • Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Erythropoietin therapy and cancer related anaemia: updated Swedish recommendations
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Medical Oncology. - Humana Press. - 1559-131X. ; 24:3, s. 267-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to concerns related to treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) and possible negative effects on tumour control, a workshop was organised by the Medical Products Agency of Sweden with the aim to revise national treatment guidelines if needed. In patients with solid tumours, conflicting results have been reported with respect to tumour control and survival. Until further notice it is therefore recommended that EPO should be used restrictively in the treatment of patients with cancer and that the anticipated improvement in quality of life should be evaluated against potential risks.
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4.
  • Ahlström, Gerd, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive rehabilitation programme tailored to the needs of adults with muscular dystrophy
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Clinical Rehabilitation. - 0269-2155. ; 20:2, s. 132-141
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess if activities of daily living (ADL), coping and quality of life could be improved in adults with muscular dystrophy through a comprehensive rehabilitation programme. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, controlled clinical study comparing patients with similar age and disease aspects. SETTING: Two different counties in Sweden, being either study or control setting. SUBJECTS: The study group comprised 37 adults (21 women, 16 men; mean age 50 years), while the control group comprised 39 people (25 women, 14 men; mean age 46 years). INTERVENTIONS: Four rehabilitation sessions tailored to different medical, physical and psychosocial needs of the patients, comprising a total of 10 days over a period of 18 months. MAIN MEASURES: ADL, the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale measuring coping strategies, the Sickness Impact Profile measuring health-related quality of life, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Psychosocial Well-being Questionnaire. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between groups with regard to the outcome measures. There was increased dependence on others in ADL after 18 months in both groups, but it was more pronounced in the control group. Furthermore, a clear trend was observed in the data with regard to coping patterns, the control group using more coping strategies such as 'Helplessness/hopelessness' (P= 0.057), 'Anxious preoccupation' (P = 0.085) and 'Fatalistic' (P= 0.073) when being compared to the study group. CONCLUSIONS: No apparent effects on ADL were found from the rehabilitation programme, although there was a tendency of reduction of maladaptive coping patterns in the study group. This initial study may provide the rationale and basis for a randomized controlled trial.
5.
  • Ahmad, Faiyaz, et al. (författare)
  • Differential regulation of adipocyte PDE3B in distinct membrane compartments by insulin and the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243: effects of caveolin-1 knockdown on formation/maintenance of macromolecular signalling complexes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - Portland Press Limited. - 0264-6021. ; 424, s. 399-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In adipocytes, PDE3B (phosphodiesterase 3B) is an important regulatory effector in signalling pathways controlled by insulin and cAMP-increasing hormones. Stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with insulin or the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243 (termed CL) indicated that insulin preferentially phosphorylated/activated PDE3B associated with internal membranes (endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi), whereas CL preferentially phosphorylated/activated PDE3B associated with caveolae. siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated KD (knockdown) of CAV-1 (caveolin-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in down-regulation of expression of membrane-associated PDE3B. Insulin-induced activation of PDE3B was reduced, whereas CL-mediated activation was almost totally abolished. Similar results were obtained in adipocytes from Cav-1-deficient mice. siRNA-mediated KID of CAV-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also resulted in inhibition of CL-stimulated phosphorylation of HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) and perilipin A, and of lipolysis. Superose 6 gel-filtration chromatography of solubilized membrane proteins from adipocytes stimulated with insulin or CL demonstrated the reversible assembly of distinct macromolecular complexes that contained P-32-phosphorylated PDE3B and signalling molecules thought to be involved in its activation. Insulin- and CL-induced macromolecular complexes were enriched in cholesterol, and contained certain common signalling proteins [14-3-3, PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) and cav-1]. The complexes present in insulin-stimulated cells contained tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and its downstream signalling proteins, whereas CL-activated complexes contained beta(3)-adrenergic receptor, PKA-RII [PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase)-regulatory subunit] and HSL. Insulin- and CL-mediated macromolecular complex formation was significantly inhibited by CAV-1 KID. These results suggest that cav-1 acts as a molecular chaperone or scaffolding molecule in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts that may be necessary for the proper stabilization and activation of PDE3B in response to CL and insulin.
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6.
  • Akesson, K, et al. (författare)
  • The non-inherited maternal HLA haplotype affects the risk for type 1 diabetes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Immunogenetics. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1744-3121. ; 36:1, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to test the hypothesis that the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype that is not inherited from the mother, that is, the non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA) affects the risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). A total of 563 children with T1D and 286 non-diabetic control children from Sweden were genotyped for DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. The frequency of positively (DR4-DQA1*0301-B1*0302 and DR3-DQA1*0501-B1*0201), negatively (DR15-DQ A1*0102-B1*0602) or neutrally (all other) T1D associated HLA haplotypes were compared between NIMA and non-inherited paternal antigen (NIPA). All comparisons were carried out between HLA-matched patients and controls. The frequency of positively associated NIMA was higher among both DR4/X-positive healthy individuals compared wit DR4/X-positive patients (P < 0.00003) and DR3/X-positive healthy individuals compared with DR3/X-positive patients (P < 0.009). No such difference was observed for NIPA. High-risk NIMA was increased compared to NIPA among healthy DR3/X- and DR4/X-positive children (P < 0.05). There was no difference in frequency of positively associated haplotypes between patient NIMA and NIPA. The NIMA but not the NIPA affects the risk for T1D, suggesting that not only the inherited but also non-inherited maternal HLA haplotypes, perhaps through microchimerism or other mechanisms, may influence the risk for the disease.
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7.
  • Albertsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Phase II studies on docetaxel alone every third week, or weekly in combination with gemcitabine in patients with primary locally advanced, metastatic, or recurrent esophageal cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Medical Oncology. - Humana Press. - 1559-131X. ; 24:4, s. 407-412
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The purpose of these studies was to compare efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel alone with the combination of gemcitabine and docetaxel for treatment of metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Patients and methods These studies enrolled patients with histopathologically verified squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or cardia. Between March 1997 and June 1999, 52 patients were enrolled in the initial Phase II study (Study I). They were scheduled for treatment with docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) every third week as a 1-h infusion. The second Phase II study between September 2000 and March 2003 included 65 patients (Study II). They were given docetaxel 30 mg/m(2) administered as a 30-min i.v. infusion weekly for four times, followed by 2 weeks of rest, and gemcitabine starting with a dose of 750 mg/m(2) (if well-tolerated 1,000 mg/m 2) on days 1 and 15, followed by 3 weeks of rest. A new cycle began on day 36. Patients were premedicated with betamethasone 8 mg p.o. on the evening before, and 8 mg i.v. 30-60 min before the docetaxel infusion. Response was confirmed by computed tomography and assessed at 12 and 24 weeks. Toxicity was assessed according to WHO scales. Results In study I, 38 out of the 52 enrolled patients were valuable. Two patients experienced complete remission (CR) (5%), 10 patients partial remission (PR) (26%), nine patients stable disease (SD) (24%), and 17 patients showed progressive disease (PD) (45%). Toxicity mainly involved leukopenia, which in some cases required hospitalization and treatment with antibiotics. In Study II, 46 out of the 65 enrolled patients (70%) were assessable. Out of these, three patients (7%) had CR, eight patients (17%) had PR, 10 patients (22%) had SD, and 25 (54%) PD. Overall response was 24% while an additional 22% showed stable disease. Toxicity mainly consisted of leucopenia and pain. Conclusion Docetaxel as a single agent is active in esophageal cancer, both in treatment naive and in previously treated patients with recurrent disease. The overall response rate was 31%, with a good-safety profile. The addition of gemcitabine is well tolerated, but adds no efficacy. Weekly administration of docetaxel may be less effective. It demonstrates moderate efficacy and the doses used provide an acceptable safety profile.
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8.
  • Albin, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Higher mortality and different pattern of causes of death among foreign-born compared to native Swedes 1970-1999
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. - Springer. - 1557-1912. ; 8:2, s. 101-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a previous Swedish longitudinal study of mortality among 723,948 foreign born and native-born Swedes, 1970-1999, increased mortality was found among foreign-born persons. This study describes and analyses the differences in mortality between 361,974 foreign-born persons and 361,974 native Swedes during the period 1970-1999, based on data from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare. The mortality pattern showed dissimilarities; with a significantly higher number of deaths among foreign-born persons in six diagnose groups and a significantly lower mean age at time of death. A high number of deaths were found for migrants from Denmark in Neoplasm, for migrants from Finland and Poland in Diseases of the circulatory system and for migrants from Yugoslavia in Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions. There is a tendency to a more similar pattern between foreign- and Swedish-born persons over time. Migration may be a risk factor for health, and therefore seems to be an important factor to consider when studying morbidity and health and when planning preventive work.
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9.
  • Albin, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality among 723 948 foreign- and native-born Swedes 1970-1999
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health. - Oxford University Press. - 1101-1262. ; 15:5, s. 511-517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mortality in a population is regarded as an accurate and valid measure of the population's health. There are a few international studies, predominantly cross- sectional, of mortality among all foreign- born compared with an indigenous population, and the results have varied. No Swedish longitudinal study describing and analysing mortality data was found in a literature review. Methods: This study describes and analyses the differences in mortality between foreign- born persons and native Swedes during the period 1970 - 1999, based on data from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare. The database consisted of 723 948 persons, 361 974 foreign- born living in Sweden in 1970, aged >= 16 years, and 361 974 Swedish controls matched for age, sex, occupation and type of employment, living in the same county in 1970. Results: The results showed increased mortality for foreign- born persons compared with the Swedish controls [ odds ratio ( OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval ( CI) 1.07 - 1.08]. Persons who had migrated ` late' ( 1941 - 1970) to Sweden were 2.5 years younger at time of death than controls. In relation to country of birth, the highest risk odds were for men born in Finland ( OR 1.21), Denmark ( OR 1.11) and Norway/ Iceland ( OR 1.074). Age cohorts of foreign- born persons born between 1901 and 1920 had higher mortality at age 55 - 69 years than cohorts born between 1921 and 1944. Conclusions: Migrants had higher mortality than the native population, and migration may be a risk factor for health; therefore, this seems to be an important factor to consider when studying mortality and health.
10.
  • Alkner, S., et al. (författare)
  • Tamoxifen reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer in premenopausal women: Results from a controlled randomised trial.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 45, s. 2496-2502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer in hormone-responsive postmenopausal patients, whereas the effect in premenopausal women has not been fully elucidated. We have therefore studied the effect of tamoxifen on contralateral breast cancer in premenopausal women in a controlled randomised trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Premenopausal women (564) with stage II breast cancers were randomised to 2 years of tamoxifen versus control irrespective of oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. The median follow-up for patients not developing a contralateral cancer was 14 years. RESULTS: In the control group 35 women, and in the tamoxifen group 17 women, developed a contralateral breast cancer as a primary event. Tamoxifen significantly reduced the risk of contralateral breast cancer in all women regardless of age (hazard ratio (HR) 0.5, p=0.02). In subgroup analysis the risk reduction was most pronounced in patients <40 years of age (HR 0.09, p=0.02). A risk reduction was also seen in women 40-49 years of age or >/=50 years of age, although in these subgroups this did not reach statistical significance. The reduced risk of contralateral breast cancer was persistent during the whole follow-up time. CONCLUSION: In this randomised trial, adjuvant treatment using tamoxifen for 2 years reduced the incidence of contralateral breast cancer by 50% in all premenopausal women, and by 90% in women <40 years of age. The effect of tamoxifen was not significantly dependent on time.
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