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Sökning: LAR1:lu > (2005-2009) > Tidskriftsartikel > Engelska > Giwercman Aleksander

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  • Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva C, et al. (författare)
  • Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health. - BioMed Central. - 1476-069X. ; 5:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is ubiquitous and found in all individuals. Studies have documented endocrine disrupting effects and impact on reproduction. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of xenoestrogenic activity in serum of groups with varying POP exposure, and to evaluate correlations to the POP biomarkers, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE). METHODS: The study included 358 men: Greenlandic Inuit's, Swedish fishermen, and Warsaw (Poland) and Kharkiv (Ukraine) inhabitants. Xenoestrogenicity of serum extracts alone (XER) and XER competitive (XERcomp) effect on 17beta-estradiol induced estrogen receptor (ER) transactivity were assessed in the hormone free, lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the MVLN human breast cancer cell line. RESULTS: No agonistic XER activity was exhibited for Inuit serum samples, while 12 - 24% of the European samples had detectable agonistic XER activity. On the contrary, 71% of Inuit serum samples antagonized XERcomp compared to 7 - 30 % in the other regions. XER and XERcomp were not or weakly correlated to the two POP markers. XER activity of Inuit samples was negatively associated to levels of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. For the Warsaw group a positive and negative correlation between XER and p,p'-DDE and estradiol equivalence level and CB-153 levels was found. CONCLUSION: No strong consistent association between xenoestrogenic net activity and the two POP markers was found. The results showed that the selected POP markers alone can not predict the integrated xenoestrogenic serum activity. Correlations to the POP markers were found at the extreme edge; the Inuit's and Warsaw study groups eliciting high frequency of samples with ER antagonistic and agonistic activity, respectively. We suggest that the variation in xenoestrogenic serum activity reflects differences in POP exposure mixture, genetic factors and/or life style factors.
  • Bungum, Mona, et al. (författare)
  • Sperm chromatin structure assay parameters measured after density gradient centrifugation are not predictive for the outcome of ART
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Human Reproduction. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2350 .- 0268-1161. ; 23:1, s. 41374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameter DNA fragmentation index (DFI) has been shown to predict in vivo and in vitro fertility. So far most SCSA studies have been based on SCSA analysis performed on neat semen. The aim of this study is to assess whether SCSA analysis of sperm prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) could add more information in regard to the prediction of treatment outcome. METHODS The study included 510 assisted reproductive technique (ART) cycles. SCSA was performed in neat semen and post DGC. SCSA results were expressed in terms of DFI and high DNA stainability (HDS) cell fractions. The outcome parameter was clinical pregnancy (CP). RESULTS Scatter-plot diagrams demonstrated that for DGC samples, no DFI cut-off values could be set for in vivo or in vitro fertility. In intrauterine insemination, IVF and ICSI groups the mean difference (95% CI) in DFI post DGC between those who achieved CP and those who did not was 0.2% (-1.7 to 2.0%), 0.4% (-1.9 to 2.8%) and 1.3% (-3.1 to 5.9%), respectively, none of these being statistically significant. The corresponding differences for HDS were 0.1% (-1.3 to 1.5%), 0.1% (-0.7 to 0.9%) and 0.6% (-1.6 to 2.7%), respectively (all P-values >0.6). CONCLUSIONS SCSA performed in semen prepared by DGC cannot predict the outcome of ART.
  • Collin, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Constitutive expression of the antibacterial CXC chemokine GCP-2/CXCL6 by epithelial cells of the male reproductive tract.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Reproductive Immunology. - 1872-7603 .- 0165-0378. ; 79, s. 37-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reproductive tract is continuously challenged by potential pathogens present in the environment. Therefore, robust host defense mechanisms are essential both for the health of the individual and for fertilization. Antibiotic innate immunity peptides possess broad antimicrobial activity. Recently, we found that the CXC chemokine, granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2/CXCL6, possesses antibacterial activity. In the present study, we investigated, therefore, the presence of GCP-2/CXCL6 in the human male reproductive system. GCP-2/CXCL6 was detected at 19nM (mean; range: 5-47nM; n=14) in seminal plasma of fertile donors, i.e. at levels more than 100 times higher than those previously reported for the related chemokine IL-8/CXCL8. No GCP-2/CXCL6 could be detected in blood plasma of healthy donors, indicating local production in the male reproductive tract. In vasectomized donors, significantly lower levels of GCP-2/CXCL6 were found (mean: 3nM; range 2-7nM; n=7), demonstrating that the testis and epididymis contribute significantly to the GCP-2/CXCL6 content of seminal plasma. Strong expression of GCP-2/CXCL6 was found in the epithelium of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles, while the prostate epithelium showed weak expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry. A biological function is suggested, viz. at concentrations of the order of those found in seminal plasma, GCP-2/CXCL6 has antibacterial activity against the urogenital pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. GCP-2/CXCL6 in seminal plasma may play roles in both host defense of the male urogenital tract and during fertilization.
  • Eberhard, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for post-treatment hypogonadism in testicular cancer patients.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X .- 0804-4643. ; 158:4, s. 561-570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Testicular germ-cell cancer (TGCC) patients are at risk of developing hypogonadism but no risk factors have yet been defined. METHODS: Blood was collected from 143 TGCC patients (after orchidectomy, prior to further therapy (T0) and 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months (T6, T12, T24, T36 and T60) after therapy). Biological hypogonadism (BH) was defined as: serum testosterone below 10 nmol/l and/or LH >10 IU/l; odds ratios (ORs) for BH with BH at T0, age, stage of disease, testicular characteristics, and androgen receptor polymorphism as predictors were calculated as well as the OR for developing BH post-treatment (one to two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) versus three to four cycles of higher dose chemotherapy (HCT) versus adjuvant radiotherapy (RT)). RESULTS: HCT increased the OR for BH at T6 (OR 22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.4-118) and T12 (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.5-22). RT increased the OR at T6 (OR 10, 95% CI 2.1-47) and at T12 (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-14). Microlithiasis predicted BH at T0 (OR 11, 95% CI 1.2-112), T12 (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-13), T24 (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.8), T36 (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.7-17) and T60 (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16). BH at T0 was a risk for BH at T6 (OR 53, 95% CI 19-145), T12 (OR 125, 95% CI 37-430), T24 (OR 88, 95% CI 26-300) and T36 (OR 121, 95% CI 32-460). CONCLUSIONS: It is clinically relevant that BH at T0 and testicular microlithiasis were predictive factors for post-treatment BH. HCT and RT gave temporary BH.
  • Edström, Anneli M L, et al. (författare)
  • The major bactericidal activity of human seminal plasma is zinc-dependent and derived from fragmentation of the semenogelins.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). - 1550-6606. ; 181:5, s. 3413-3421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the major roles of seminal plasma is to provide antimicrobial protection for the spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract. We found that the bactericidal activity of seminal plasma was highest after resolution of the seminal clot and that this antibacterial activity subsequently became greatly diminished. The antibacterial activity was derived from peptides generated by fragmentation of the semenogelins while the semenogelin holoproteins displayed no antibacterial activity. After ejaculation the semenogelin-derived peptides were fragmented to smaller and smaller fragments over time and thereby lost antibacterial activity. This paralleled the loss of antibacterial activity of whole seminal plasma both in vitro and after sexual intercourse. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the semenogelin-derived peptides generated in seminal plasma was strictly zinc-dependent both at neutral and low pH. These data provide novel roles for the resolution of seminal clots and for the high zinc concentration in human seminal plasma.
  • Elzanaty, Saad, et al. (författare)
  • Duration of sexual abstinence: epididymal and accessory sex gland secretions and their relationship to sperm motility.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Human Reproduction. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2350 .- 0268-1161. ; 20:1, s. 221-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The data on the association between the abstinence period and sperm motility are conflicting. METHODS: Ejaculates from 422 men assessed for infertility were analysed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Seminal plasma neutral alpha-glucosidase (NAG), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), zinc and fructose were measured. Three groups were defined according to the length of sexual abstinence: G(2-3) (2-3 days), G(4-5) (4-5 days) and G(6-7) (6-7 days). RESULTS: The total percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa was significantly higher in G(4-5) compared with G(2-3) and G(6-7) (medians 55 versus 47 and 42%: P = 0.039 and P < 0.001, respectively). The percentage of spermatozoa with tail defects was significantly higher in G(6-7) compared with G(2-3) and G(4-5) (medians 14 versus 10 and 10%; P = 0.011 and P = 0.002. respectively). NAG was significantly lower in G(2-3) compared with G(4-5) and G(6-7) (medians 23 versus 34 and 34mU/ejaculate; P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The same trend was found regarding zinc (medians 6 versus 8 and 8 mumol/ejaculate; P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Within the time interval recommended by the WHO (2-7 days), the length of the abstinence period is associated with sperm characteristics and should be taken into consideration when interpreting results of semen analysis.
  • Elzanaty, Saad, et al. (författare)
  • Significant impact of 5 alpha-reductase type 2 polymorphisms on sperm concentration and motility
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Andrology. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0105-6263. ; 29:3, s. 414-420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Androgens, including 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are known to play a role for spermatogenesis and accessory sex gland function. The enzyme 5 alpha-reductase (SRD5A) catalyses the conversion of testosterone to DHT. Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SRD5A2 gene influence semen parameters in the general population. DNA from 182 Swedish military conscripts was examined for the A49T, V89L, and R227Q polymorphisms in the SRD5A type 2 gene. Ejaculates were analysed according to WHO guidelines. In addition, sperm motility was assessed using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA). Seminal markers of epididymal (neutral alpha-glucosidase), prostatic (prostate specific-antigen and zinc), and seminal vesicles function (fructose) were measured. The A49TT-allele was associated with significantly higher sperm concentration compared with the wild type A-allele (mean: 102 x 10(6)/mL vs. 57 x 10(6)/mL, p = 0.02). The V89LV-genotype was correlated with significantly higher proportion progressive motile spermatozoa compared with the L-variant (mean: 55% vs. 48%, p = 0.04). The same trend was found regarding the CASA motile spermatozoa (mean: 52% vs. 41%, p = 0.02). No association between any of the polymorphisms and biochemical markers was found. SRD5A2 gene variants were associated with sperm concentration and motility, but not with epididymal and accessory sex gland markers. This effect on sperm parameters might therefore be exerted via a direct effect of DHT on spermatogenesis.
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