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1.
  • Aballay, Erwin (författare)
  • Rhizobacteria associated to Vitis vinifera and their effect on the control of Xiphinema index, Meloidogyne ethiopica and Vitis growth
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the most important pests affecting the growth of vineyards due to the destruction of new roots. Several species are associated with this problem, the most important being the ectoparasite Xiphinema index and the endoparasite Meloidogyne ethiopica. The search for new pest and disease control methods based on bioantagonist microorganisms is an important aspect of modern agriculture and the development of tools based on the use of rhizobacteria is becoming a widely evaluated alternative. The present study on suppressive soils started with a survey undertaken in productive Chilean vineyards to explore the younger roots of grapevines and identify the presence of rhizobacteria. More than 1800 soils were surveyed and a set of 11 vineyards were selected and considered suitable for bacteria isolation, as they showed low densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. A total of 400 bacterial isolates in 25 genera were obtained using tryptic soy broth agar and identified with fatty acid profiling. Two of the most frequently isolated species were Pseudomonas putida (35.1%) and P. fluorescens (6.1%). The effect of these isolates on the parasitism and reproduction of X. index was assessed through assays using potted vine plants (cv. Thompson Seedless) and a bacterial suspension containing 1×106 CFU/mL. Some isolates from Bacillus megaterium, B. brevis, B. mycoides, B. sphaericus, B. thuringiensis, Pseudomonas corrugata, P. putida, P. alcaligenes, P. savastanoi, P. fluorescens, P. pseudoalcaligenes, P. viridiflava, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia plymuthica, Cytophaga johnsonae, Rahnella aquatilis, Stenotrophomonas sp., Variovorax paradoxus and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens reduced root damage and suppressed populations. Isolates of B. brevis, Comamonas acidovorans, B. megaterium, Pantoea agglomerans and P. savastanoi increased plant growth or root weight, but did not control nematodes. Most of the culture filtrates obtained from isolates from four vineyards were effective in killing X. index and decreasing egg hatching, which was not related to damage or population control. It was estimated that 89, 32 and 16% of the isolates were effective against X. index under supernatant conditions, in potted plants growing in sterile substrate and in potted plants growing in field soil, respectively. Sixteen bacterial isolates previously assessed were also evaluated on M. ethiopica in vine cv. Chardonnay. Seven isolates (Serratia marcescens, C. acidovorans, P. agglomerans, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, B. mycoides, Alcaligenes piechaudii and S. plymuthica) decreased damage or reproduction, showing that different species of nematodes can respond differently to a particular isolate.
2.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Bacillus velezensis 5113 Induced Metabolic and Molecular Reprogramming during Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Wheat
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abiotic stresses are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been shown to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several plants. However, the molecular and physiological changes connected with PGPR priming of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation aimed to explore major metabolic and molecular changes connected with the ability of Bacillus velezensis 5113 to mediate abiotic stress tolerance in wheat. Seedlings treated with Bacillus were exposed to heat, cold/freezing or drought stress. Bacillus improved wheat survival in all stress conditions. SPAD readings showed higher chlorophyll content in 5113-treated stressed seedlings. Metabolite profiling using NMR and ESI-MS provided evidences for metabolic reprograming in 5113-treated seedlings and showed that several common stress metabolites were significantly accumulated in stressed wheat. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of wheat leaves resolved more than 300 proteins of which several were differentially expressed between different treatments and that cold stress had a stronger impact on the protein pattern compared to heat and drought. Peptides maps or sequences were used for database searches which identified several homologs. The present study suggests that 5113 treatment provides systemic effects that involve metabolic and regulatory functions supporting both growth and stress management.
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3.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying potential molecular factors involved in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 5113 mediated abiotic stress tolerance in wheat
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plant Biology. - Wiley: 12 months. - 1435-8603 .- 1438-8677. ; 20, s. 271-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abiotic stressors are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth-promoting bacteria have been successfully used to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several crops including wheat. However, the molecular changes involved in the improvement of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation addressed some molecular factors involved in bacterially induced plant abiotic stress responses by identifying differentially expressed genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings treated with the beneficial bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5113 prior to challenge with abiotic stress conditions such as heat, cold or drought. cDNA-AFLP analysis revealed differential expression of more than 200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in wheat leaves. Expression of selected TDFs was confirmed using RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of 31 differentially expressed TDFs revealed significant homology with both known and unknown genes in database searches. Virus-induced gene silencing of two abscisic acid-related TDFs showed different effects upon heat and drought stress. We conclude that treatment with B.amyloliquefaciens 5113 caused molecular modifications in wheat in order to induce tolerance against heat, cold and drought stress. Bacillus treatment provides systemic effects that involve metabolic and regulatory functions supporting both growth and stress management.
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4.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of bacterial priming on some stress tolerance mechanisms and growth of cold stressed wheat seedlings
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Plant Biology. - PAGEpress. - 2037-0156 .- 2037-0164. ; 4, s. 29-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The potential to enhance growth of cold stressed wheat by seed treatment (priming) with the beneficial bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 5113 and Azospirillum brasilense NO40 were tested. Results showed an improved ability of bacteria-treated seedlings to survive at −5°C up to 12 h. Cold stress increased transcript levels of three stress marker genes and increased activity for the ascorbate-glutathione redox enzymes. However, primed and stressed seedlings generally showed smaller effects on the stress markers correlating with better growth and improved stress tolerance. Bacterial priming to improve crop plant performance at low temperature seems a useful strategy to explore further.
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5.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Improved heat stress tolerance of wheat seedlings by bacterial seed treatment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plant and Soil. - Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0032-079X .- 1573-5036. ; 379, s. 337-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate if rhizosphere bacteria can improve heat tolerance of wheat. MethodsWheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds of the cultivars Olivin and Sids1 were treated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 or Azospirillum brasilense NO40 and young seedlings tested for management of short term heat stress. ResultsBacterial treatment improved heat stress management of wheat. Olivin showed higher heat tolerance than Sids1 both with non-inoculated and inoculated seeds. Heat increased transcript levels of several stress related genes in the leaves, while expression was lower in inoculated plants but elevated compared with the control. Enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione redox cycle were activated in leaves after heat challenge but showed a lower response in inoculated plants. Metabolite profiling distinguished different treatments dependent on analysis technique with respect to primary and secondary metabolites. Analysis of some plant stress regulatory genes showed that bacterial treatment increased transcript levels while effects of heat treatment varied. Conclusions: The improvement of heat tolerance by bacteria seems associated with reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (and consequently less cell damage), small changes in the metabolome while preactivation of certain heat shock transcription factors seems important. Seed inoculation with beneficial bacteria seems a promising strategy to improve heat tolerance of wheat.
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6.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Paenibacillus polymyxa A26 Sfp-type PPTase inactivation limits bacterial antagonism against Fusarium graminearum but not of F. culmorum in kernel assay
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science. - Frontiers Media. - 1664-462X. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum are the causing agents of a destructive disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB). FHB is a re-emerging disease in small grain cereals which impairs both the grain yield and the quality. Most serious consequence is the contamination of grain with Fusarium mycotoxins that are severe threat to humans and animals. Biological control has been suggested as one of the integrated management strategies to control FHB. Paenibacillus polymyxa is considered as a promising biocontrol agent due to its unique antibiotic spectrum. P. polymyxa A26 is an efficient antagonistic agent against Fusarium spp. In order to optimize strain A26 production, formulation and application strategies traits important for its compatibility need to be revealed. Here we developed a toolbox, comprising of dual culture plate assays and wheat kernel assays, including simultaneous monitoring of FHB causing pathogens, A26, and mycotoxin production. Using this system we show that, besides generally known lipopeptide antibiotic production by P. polymyxa, biofilm formation ability may play a crucial role in the case of stain A26 F. culmorum antagonism. Application of the system for effective strain selection and maintenance is discussed.
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7.
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa (författare)
  • Use of rhizobacteria for the alleviation of plant stress
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are beneficial microbes able to induce plant stress tolerance and antagonise plant pathogens. The present study showed that wheat seedlings pre-treated with Bacillus thuringiensis AZP2 had better tolerance to severe drought stress and showed 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship compared to wheat seedlings not treated with the bacterium. The effect of B. thuringiensis AZP2 also resulted in improved net assimilation and reduced emission of stress volatiles. The study investigated the effect of the inactivation of sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase in plant growth promoting bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa A26. The inactivation of the sfp gene resulted in loss of NRP/PK production such fusaricidins and polymyxins. In contrast to the former Bacillus spp. model the mutant strain compared to wild type showed greatly enhanced biofilm formation ability. Its biofilm promotion is directly mediated by NRP/PK, as exogenous addition of the wild type metabolite extracts restores its biofilm formation level. Further, increased biofilm formation was connected with enhanced ability of the sfp inactivated strain to remarkably protect wheat seedlings by improving its survival and biomass under severe drought stress conditions compared to wild type. Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum are the causing agents of a destructive disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB). The disease is the leading cause of contamination of grain with Fusarium mycotoxins that are severe threat to humans and animals. Biological control has been suggested as one of the integrated management strategies to control FHB causing agents. The present study showed that P. polymyxa A26 is a potent antagonistic agent against F. graminearum and F. culmorum. In order to optimize strain A26 production, formulation and application strategies traits important for its compatibility need to be revealed. Hence, a toolbox comprising of dual culture plate assays and wheat kernel assays including simultaneous monitoring of the FHB causing pathogens, A26 and mycotoxins produced was developed in the present study. Using this system results showed that, besides the involvement of lipopeptide antibiotic production by P. polymyxa in the antagonism process, biofilm formation ability may play a crucial role in the case of A26 F. culmorum antagonism.
8.
  • Abebe Abiye, Shenkut, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic diversity of five local Swedish chicken breeds detected by microsatellite markers
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of 110 local Swedish chickens derived from five breeds (Gotlandshona, Hedemorahona, Olandsk dvarghona, Skansk blommehona, and Bohuslan-Dals svarthona, in the rest of the paper the shorter name Svarthona is used) using 24 microsatellite markers. In total, one hundred thirteen alleles were detected in all populations, with a mean of 4.7 alleles per locus. For the five chicken breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.225 to 0.408 and from 0.231 to 0.515, with the lowest scores for the Svarthona and the highest scores for the Skansk blommehona breeds, respectively. Similarly, the average within breed molecular kinship varied from 0.496 to 0.745, showing high coancestry, with Skansk blommehona having the lowest and Svarthona the highest coancestry. Furthermore, all breeds showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Across the five breeds, the global heterozygosity deficit (FIT) was 0.545, population differentiation index (F-ST) was 0.440, and the global inbreeding of individuals within breed (F-IS) was 0.187. The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed two main clusters, with Hedemorahona and Olandsk dvarghona breeds in one cluster, and Gotlandshona and Svarthona breeds in the second cluster leaving the Skansk blommehona in the middle. Based on the results of the STRUCTURE analysis, the most likely number of clustering of the five breeds was at K = 4, with Hedemorahona, Gotlandshona and Svarthona breeds forming their own distinct clusters, while Olandsk dvarghona and Skansk blommehona breeds clustered together. Losses in the overall genetic diversity of local Swedish chickens due to breeds extinction varied from -1.46% to -6.723%. The results of the current study can be used as baseline genetic information for genetic conservation program, for instance, to control inbreeding and to implement further genetic studies in local Swedish chickens.
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9.
  • Abedi, Tayebeh (författare)
  • Constructed wetland modified by biochar/zeolite addition for enhanced wastewater treatment
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental technology & innovation. - 2352-1864. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wastewater treatment for water reuse has received considerable attention owing to water resource shortage. One of the most effective wastewater treatment methods involves the use of constructed wetlands (CWs). In this study, synthetic wastewater was treated by using a biochar/zeolite CW. Phragmites australis (common reed) was translocated into two cylinders (lysimeters) that serve as vertical subsurface flow CWs. One CW (CW1) contained gravels as substrate layer, whereas the other CW (CW2) contained three substrate layers, namely, biochar, zeolite, and gravel layers. Response surface methodology was used for statistical analysis. In this study, CW2 performed better in removing pollutants from wastewater than CW1. At optimum pH (6.3) and retention time (57.4 h), 99.9% (1000 mg/L) COD, 99.9% (1000 mg/L) ammonia, 99.9% (50 mg/L) phenols, 99.9% (50 mg/L) Pb, and 99.9% (50 mg/L) Mn were removed by CW2. During this research, nitrous oxide emission was lower in CW2 than in CW1. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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10.
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