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  • A. Bergvall, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Personality and foraging decisions in fallow deer, Dama dama
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Animal Behaviour. - 0003-3472. ; 81:1, s. 101-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have examined the ecological and evolutionary bases for variation in animal personality. However, only a few such studies have examined how foraging parameters are influenced by different personality domains. In wild ungulates, the trade-off between the time spent on food intake and antipredator behaviour differs between individuals, but the underlying reason for this is not yet well understood. One possibility is that this trade-off reflects personality dimensions such as boldness. To relate foraging decisions to personality we measured personality and performed feeding experiments with familiar and novel food in familiar and novel situations. We measured personality traits in 15 tame fallow deer, using novel object tests (NO), behavioural observations (BO) and personality ratings (PR). Boldness dimensions were found using PR and NO, dominance dimensions were found using BO and PR, and a flexibility dimension was found using BO. Multitrait–multimethod analysis showed that similar dimensions were significantly correlated across different methods and that different dimensions were not significantly correlated, even if measured using the same method. We also found that novel food eaten in familiar situations and familiar food eaten in novel situations were strongly related to boldness but not dominance, flexibility or age. Thus the trade-off between the benefits of gaining more food and the costs of reduced vigilance or increased toxin ingestion reflect boldness. These findings highlight the nature of personality dimensions in ungulates and how boldness impacts foraging behaviour.
  • A Proactive Approach : Law Libraries
  • 2006
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Reliance on routines to avoid mistakes is a self-evident feature of many fields of human activity. The commercial pilot preparing for take-off, the engineer designing a bridge and the insurance company introducing a new product all depend on proven methods to ensure that nothing important is forgotten and to assess the consequences of planned measures. Legal work is somewhat atypical in the foregoing respect. Compared with many other activities, there are few descriptions of how the various segments of a legal task are to be devised in order to achieve the greatest possible certainty of result. Lawyers tend to work reactively, i.e., the focus is on solving problems that have already arisen. Efforts aimed at avoiding problems before they begin to brew - i.e., proactively - are less common. The proactive approach is not unknown in the legal sphere but as compared to many other fields of the law the perspective is not very well elaborated. Against this background this volume of Scandinavian Studies in Law presents 25 articles on various aspects of proactive approaches in law, the majority of them focusing on contracting issues. The collection is simultaneously a documentation of a conference on proactive law held in Stockholm 2005. In addition to the articles on proactive law this volume contains a presentation of major law libraries in the Scandinavian countries.Table of Contents:Barton, Thomas D., Thinking Preventively and Proactively, p. 71-92Bing, Jon and Mahler, Tobias, Contractual Risk Management in an ICT Context - Searching for a Possible Interface between Legal Methods and Risk Analysis, p. 339-358Cummins, Tim, Best Practices In Commercial Contracting, p. 131-148Daicoff, Susan, The Comprehensive Law Movement: An Emerging Approach to Legal Problems, p. 109-128Dauer, Eduard A., The Role of Culture in Legal Risk Management, p. 93-108Haapio, Helena, Introduction to Proactive Law from a Business Lawyer's Point of View, p. 21-34Haapio, Helena, Business Success and Problem Prevention through Proactive Contracting, p. 149-194Haarala-Nystén, Soili, Contract Law and Everyday Contracting, p. 263-284Haavisto, Vaula, Contracting in Networks, p. 237-254Jakobsen Sandfeld, Søren, Entering New and Converging Media Markets: How to Take a Proactive Approach to Legal Issues in the Electronic Communications Sector, p. 393-406Kavaleff, Anette, Successful Outsourcing through Proactive Contracting - Strategy, Risk Assessment and Implementation, p. 215-226Lando, Henrik, Determinants of the Optimal Degree of Pro-activeness in Contracting, p. 255-262Magnusson, Jarl S., Proactive Law - and the Importance of Data and Information Resources, p. 407-424Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia, Presentation of the Nordic School of Proactive Law, p. 13-20Paris, Carolyn E.C., Contract Management: Design Parameters and Challenges to Implementation, p. 195-214Pohjonen, Soile, Proactive Law in Academia, p. 53-70Sadighi Firozabadi, Babak and Sergot, Marek , The Role of Agreements in Virtual Organisations, p. 297-304Schartum, Dag Wiese, Introduction to a Government-based Perspective on Proactive Law, p. 35-52Seipel, Peter, Nordic School of Proactive Law Conference 2005: Closing Comments, p. 359-364Syse, Aslak, Equality and Accessibility: A Proactive Approach to Strengthen the Legal Status and Protection Against Discrimination of Persons with Disabilities, p. 367-384Taskinen, Tommi K.J., Some Thoughts on Proactive Counselling and Legal Mentality, p. 227-236Trzaskowski, Jan, Legal Risk Management in a Global, Electronic Marketplace, p. 319-338Weitzenböck, Emily M., Prevention is Better than Cure: Fostering the Growth of Dynamic Networked Organisations through the use of Proactive Legal Measures, p. 305-318Vikström, Mats, The Impact of IT on the Foundation for Businesses Daily Operation, p. 285-296Zimmer, Frederik, Tax Legislation between Politics and Legal (and Economic) Thinking, p. 385-392Law Libraries in Denmark, p. 427-433Law Libraries in Finland, p. 434-441Norwegian Law Libraries, p. 442-447Law Libraries in Sweden, p. 448-462
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