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  • Barthel, Stephan, et al. (författare)
  • Biocultural Refugia Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapesof Food Production
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ecology & society. - 1708-3087. ; 18:4, s. UNSP 71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed morepeople. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methodswhen preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe ofbiocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiencesabout practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriersinclude genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect adiverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionallydistinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to localenvironmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditionalecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and culturalreservoirs — refugia — for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousandyrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practicesembedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adaptto change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producingmore food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a longhistory of agriculture
  • Beasley, Val Richard, et al. (författare)
  • 1. Wildlife and Ecosystem Health
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Animal Health. - Uppsala : Baltic University Press. - ISBN 978-91-86189-12-9 ; s. 13-26
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Jakobsson, Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Preface
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Sustainable Agriculture. - Uppsala : Baltic University Press. - 978-91-86189-10-5 ; s. 8-10
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Redmalm, David, 1981- (författare)
  • Review of Humans, Animals and Biopolitics The More-than-Human Condition, Edited by Kristin Asdal, Tone Druglitrö and Steve Hinchliffe
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies. - Trondheim : Department for Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. - 1894-4647. ; 5:1, s. 38-39
  • Recension (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Michel Foucault’s concept of biopolitics captures the way a decentralized form of governing measures and mobilizes life itself through a number of technologies, such as demographics, surveillance and health initiatives, with the aim to prolong and enhance the lives of a population. According to Foucault, this biopolitical form of governing characteristic of modernity implies a detached and technical stance towards individual lives. In short, biopolitics turns individual lives into life as a mass noun. Interestingly, when human life is treated as a resource, human’s self-proclaimed position as the crown of creation is unsettled and humans find themselves part of the same biopolitical nexus as many other animals. The technologies and consequences of the biopolitization of humans and other animals is the subject of the volume Humans, Animals and Biopolitics, edited by Kristin Asdal, Tone Druglitrö and Steve Hinchliffe. It is a book that should be required reading for Foucauldian theorists and human-animal studies scholars alike.
  • Hansson, Sven Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Breeding for public health : A strategy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Trends in Food Science & Technology. - ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON. - 0924-2244 .- 1879-3053. ; 80, s. 131-140
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Plant and animal breeding can contribute to promote human health by providing new and healthier food products that farmers can produce in an economically viable way and consumers will choose to buy and eat. However, this can only be achieved if breeding makes full use of knowledge about nutrition, consumer behaviour, farming and agricultural economics, A strategy is needed for breeding for public health. Scope and Approach: A multidisciplinary group of researchers has developed a strategy for plant and animal breeding for public health. The group includes experts in plant breeding, animal breeding, food science, nutrition science, clinical nutrition, agricultural economics, consumer research, and ethics. Key Findings and Conclusions: An outline is proposed of a strategy for breeding for public health. It aims at improving public health in both low- and high-income countries. To prevent chronic disease, the highest priority should be to develop healthy variants of traditional food items that can be introduced universally, i.e. completely replace the older, less healthy variants. In particular in low-income countries, food products with enhanced micronutrient content are urgently needed. In all countries, crops with improved fatty acid composition can contribute substantially to improved public health. A reasonable second priority is products that may not be suitable for universal introduction but will expectedly be demanded by large groups of consumers. One example could be diminishing the energy density of traditional foodstuffs by reducing their fat, sugar, and starch content and increasing their dietary fibre content, Changes in the current organization of the market for farm products are needed to encourage the production of healthier foodstuffs.
  • Sorahinobar, Mona, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of association between Fusarium graminearum resistance in spike and crude extract tolerance in seedling of wheat
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European journal of plant pathology. - 0929-1873 .- 1573-8469. ; 144:3, s. 525-538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fusarium graminearum is a hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogen that causes head and seedling blight in wheat and other cereals; however little is known about the mechanisms involved in its pathogenicity. To examine the role of pathogen metabolites in pathogenecity, we studied the effects of F. graminearum crude extract on physiological and morphological responses of Falat and Sumai3, as respectively susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars to Fusarium head blight (FHB). Our results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and coleoptile cell development were highly affected by the pathogen crude extract in both cultivars, with Sumai3 growth being more affected than Falat. These results show little correspondence between wheat seedling tolerance to F. graminearumcrude extract and resistance to FHB. Crude extract treatment resulted in significant increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in both cultivars which indicated an oxidative stress. Differential antioxidative responses to crude extract was observed; as activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidases (APX) increased in Falat and decreased in Sumai3. In addition, a greater phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was observed in treated seedlings of both cultivars. Quantitative Real- time PCR analysis showed that PAL gene expression in Falat was induced about 4 folds higher than Sumai3 under treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that a better employment of enzymatic and none enzymatic antioxidative systems in Falat could explain its higher degree of tolerance compared with Sumai3.
  • Tedersoo, Leho, et al. (författare)
  • Response to Comment on “Global diversity and geography of soil fungi”
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 349:6251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Schadt and Rosling (Technical Comment, 26 June 2015, p. 1438) argue that primer-template mismatches neglected the fungal class Archaeorhizomycetes in a global soil survey. Amplicon-based metabarcoding of nine barcode-primer pair combinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free shotgun metagenomics revealed that barcode and primer choice and PCR bias drive the diversity and composition of microorganisms in general, but the Archaeorhizomycetes were little affected in the global study. We urge that careful choice of DNA markers and primers is essential for ecological studies using high-throughput sequencing for identification.
  • Asiegbu, F.O., et al. (författare)
  • Isolation of a novel antimicrobal peptide gene (Sp-AMP) homologue from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) following infection with the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Letters. - 0378-1097 .- 1574-6968. ; 228:1, s. 27-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new family of antimicrobial peptide homologues termed Sp-Amp has been discovered in Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine). This is the first report of such proteins to be characterized in a conifer species. Sp-AMP1 was identified in a substructured cDNA library of root tissue infected with the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum and encodes a mature peptide of 79 amino acid residues. Three additional members of the Sp-AMP family (Sp-AMPs 2–4) encode cysteine-rich proteins of 105 amino acids, each containing an N-terminal region with a probable cleavage signal sequence. Northern analysis confirmed that Sp-AMP expression is elevated in Scots pine roots upon infection with H. annosum. These peptides share 64% amino acid identity with a mature protein from Macadamia integrifolia (MiAMP1), which allowed us to build a homology model for preliminary analysis. Southern analyses further confirmed that several copies of the gene are present in the Scots pine genome. The potential significance of Sp-AMP in the H. annosum–conifer pathosystem is discussed.
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