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1.
  • Almqvist, Jonas, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • How Wii Teach Physical Education and Health
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: SAGE Open. - Thousand Oaks, USA : Sage Publications. - 2158-2440. ; 6:4, s. 1-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  The use of educational computer games in physical education (PE) has become more popular in recent years and has attracted research interest. The aim of the article is to investigate how physical activities and images of the human body are offered by the game. The results show how the “teacher” constituted in the games is one who instructs and encourages the players to exercise and think about their bodies, but not a “teacher” who can help students to investigate, argue, or discuss images of health and the human body. We argue that the use of a wide range and variety of ways of teaching would make the teaching richer and offer a deeper understanding about the body and health.
2.
  • Almqvist, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • What do Wii teach in PE?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In society, video- and computer games are often pointed out as risk factors in relation to physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour as well as increasing levels of obesity. At the same time, computers are an important source of knowledge where IT-competence and IT-experience provide pronounced advantages in society. In the middle of this paradox a new type of videogames is introduced, where body movement and physical activity constitute the central element. These games, so called exergames or active video games, are games where physical movement is involved in the game through the use of for example balance-boards, step-up boards and dance-pads. Exergames are now more and more put forward in several countries as interesting tools to use in physical education in order to stimulate young people to be physically active.In a recent review and synthesis of research on video games and health, Papastergiou (2009) strongly argues that videogames can offer ”potential benefits as educational tools for Health Education and Physical Education, and that those games may improve young people’s knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours in relation to health and physical exercise” (Papastergiou, 2009, p 603). However, Vander Schee and Boyles (2010) argue that exergames rather should be seen as a body pedagogy producing certain narrow meanings about health, and that the uncritical implementation of exergames in school is a problematic way to place commercial products in school. Consequently, there are differences in views regarding exergames in educational settings that are worth paying attention to in research about people’s learning about the body, physical activity and health.The aim of this paper is to investigate how images of the human body are expected to be learned when using exergames.The use of artifacts – physical objects made by humans – is a central part of human life. In fact, there are many activities that would not be possible to perform without the use of them. In schools, students learn to use paper and pencils, computers, vaulting-horses, footballs and so on. How and why artifacts are supposed to be used in educational settings is however not given beforehand (Cuban 1986). The use of artifacts mediates certain meanings about the view of learning and the goals and choices of content in education (Almqvist 2005, Quennerstedt et al in press).  In this paper, we will use discourse analytical strategies in order to analyse how meanings about the body are expected to be learned when playing exergames. The discourse analytical strategies involve an interest in how processes of discourse constitute how we experience or relate to ourselves as well as our environment (Laclau & Mouffe 1985). Discourses constitute what is possible to say or do as partial and temporal fixations (Foucault 1980). These fixations are imbued with power, values and ideologies. As Evans and colleagues argue: “/…/ health beliefs, perceptions and definitions of illness are constructed, represented and reproduced through language that is culturally specific, ideologically laden and never value free” (Evans et al 2008 p 46). MethodTo investigate what these games offer we have explored the manuals, the content, the animations of the games as well as the instructions and comments offered during game play. The empirical material consists of exergames most commonly used in schools: Wii fit and Wii sports (sports active). In the discourse analysis we have explored what is taken for granted in the empirical material in relation to other possible ways to argue. In this way we can explore what is included and excluded in the games and what is possible to think and act in relation to statements concerning the body. Expected OutcomesThe analysis shows how the logic of the game, its animations, instructions and feedback to the player, constitutes the ideal body as a physically active, well-balanced, slim and strong body. The use of the game, the balance board and the hand control, makes it possible to measure and register how the player follows this logic. The analysis also shows how the way the player is supposed to learn about the body is strongly influenced by behaviorism. In the paper we argue that this way of learning about the body is narrow and limited and that it is important to critically discuss the effects of the use of these games in schools. ReferencesAlmqvist, Jonas (2005). Learning and artefacts. On the use of information technology in educational settings. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Cuban, Larry (1986). Teachers and machines. The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press. Evans, John, Rich Emma & Davies Bryan (2008). Education, disordered eating and obesity discourse: Fat fabrications. London: Routledge Foucault, Michel (1980). Power/knowledge. Selected interviews & other writings 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books. Laclau, Ernesto & Mouffe, Chantal (1985). Hegemony and socialist strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics. London: Verso. Papastergiou, Marina (2009). Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: A literature review. Computers & Education, 53(3), 603-622. Quennerstedt, Mikael, Almqvist, Jonas & Öhman, Marie (in press). Keep your eye on the ball. Investigating artifacts in physical education. Interchange. Vander Schee, Carolyn J. & Boyles, Deron (2010): ‘Exergaming,’ corporate interests and the crisis discourse of childhood obesity. Sport, Education and Society, 15(2), 169-185.
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4.
  • Carlström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary inorganic nitrate reverses features of metabolic syndrome in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 107:41, s. 17716-17720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors of metabolic origin that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A proposed central event in metabolic syndrome is a decrease in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Recently, an alternative pathway for NO formation in mammals was described where inorganic nitrate, a supposedly inert NO oxidation product and unwanted dietary constituent, is serially reduced to nitrite and then NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Here we show that several features of metabolic syndrome that develop in eNOS-deficient mice can be reversed by dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, in amounts similar to those derived from eNOS under normal conditions. In humans, this dose corresponds to a rich intake of vegetables, the dominant dietary nitrate source. Nitrate administration increased tissue and plasma levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides. Moreover, chronic nitrate treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and circulating levels of triglycerides and reversed the prediabetic phenotype in these animals. In rats, chronic nitrate treatment reduced blood pressure and this effect was also present during NOS inhibition. Our results show that dietary nitrate fuels a nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway that can partly compensate for disturbances in endogenous NO generation from eNOS. These findings may have implications for novel nutrition-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
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5.
  • Cedervall, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and implications on well-being in mild Alzheimer's disease : A qualitative case study on two men with dementia and their spouses.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. - 0959-3985. ; 26:4, s. 226-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To improve the understanding of experiences of people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their significant others, related to the physical activity of the afflicted persons and its perceived importance. A qualitative case study design was used. The study comprised two men with mild AD and their wives. Data were collected by qualitative interviews and participant observations. Data analysis followed a thematic guideline as described by Braun and Clarke ( 2006 ). Three central themes of experiences related to physical activity in AD were identified: 1) physical activity as health reinforcement; 2) barriers to physical activity; and 3) adaptation strategies. Important motivations for outdoor walks were enjoyable experiences of nature, body movement, and positive attitudes toward physical activity. Several factors were experienced as barriers to physical activity (e.g., tiredness, difficulties in finding one's way, and "peculiar behavior"). Significant others made considerable adjustments in everyday life to enable their partners to retain a physically active lifestyle. The findings indicate that in persons with AD, physical activities such as outdoor walking can play an important part in everyday life by creating meaningful routines and improving experienced well-being and health.
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6.
  • Eib, Constanze, et al. (författare)
  • Don't Let It Get to You! A Moderated Mediated Approach to the (In)Justice-Health Relationship
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. - 1076-8998. ; 20:4, s. 434-445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study investigates the consequences of overall justice perceptions on employees' mental health and work-family conflict. While many studies have found that perceiving injustice at work is harmful, little is known about the underlying processes. Based on the allostatic load model, it is hypothesized that mental preoccupation with work, defined as a cognitive state, is a mediator linking overall justice perceptions to employee health. Moreover, we argue that locus of control is a moderator for the mediated relationship. We tested our hypotheses with panel data consisting of 412 Swedish office workers. Results support that mental preoccupation with work mediates the relationship between overall justice and mental health, and overall justice and work-family conflict. Results also reveal that mental preoccupation with work plays a greater mediating role for individuals with an external locus of control. Implications and suggestions for future studies on the emerging relationship between organizational justice and health are discussed.
7.
  • Ek, Amanda, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Physical inactivity and smoking after myocardial infarction as predictors for readmission and survival results from the SWEDEHEART-registry.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Research in Cardiology. - Springer. - 1861-0684. ; 108:3, s. 324-332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) and smoking cessation are included in the secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI), but they are still underutilised. This study aims to explore how PA level and smoking status (6-10 weeks post-MI) were associated with 1-year readmission and mortality during full follow-up time, and with the cumulative 5-year mortality.METHODS: A population-based cohort of all hospitals providing MI-care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART-registry) in 2004-2014. PA was expressed as the number of exercise sessions of ≥ 30 min in the last 7 days: 0-1 (low), 2-4 (medium) and 5-7 (high) sessions/week. Individuals were categorised as smokers, former smokers or never-smokers. The associations were analysed by unadjusted and adjusted logistic and Cox regressions.RESULTS: During follow-up (M = 3.58 years), a total of 1702 deaths occurred among 30 644 individuals (14.1 cases per 1000 person-years). For medium and high PA, the hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were 0.39 and 0.36, respectively, compared with low PA. For never-smokers, the HR was 0.45 and former smokers 0.56 compared with smokers. Compared with low PA, the odds ratios (ORs) for readmission in medium PA were 0.65 and 0.59 for CVD and non-CVD causes, respectively. For high PA, the corresponding ORs were 0.63 and 0.55. The association remained in adjusted models. There were no associations between smoking status and readmission.CONCLUSIONS: The PA level and smoking status are strong predictors of mortality post-MI and the PA level also predicts readmission, highlighting the importance of adherence to the secondary prevention guidelines.
8.
  • Eriksson Crommert, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Trunk Muscle Activation at the Initiation and Braking of Bilateral Shoulder Flexion Movements of Different Amplitudes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 10:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate if trunk muscle activation patterns during rapid bilateral shoulder flexions are affected by movement amplitude. Eleven healthy males performed shoulder flexion movements starting from a position with arms along sides (0 degrees) to either 45 degrees, 90 degrees or 180 degrees. EMG was measured bilaterally from transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus (OI) with intra-muscular electrodes, and from rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoideus with surface electrodes. 3D kinematics was recorded and inverse dynamics was used to calculate the reactive linear forces and torque about the shoulders and the linear and angular impulses. The sequencing of trunk muscle onsets at the initiation of arm movements was the same across movement amplitudes with ES as the first muscle activated, followed by TrA, RA and OI. All arm movements induced a flexion angular impulse about the shoulders during acceleration that was reversed during deceleration. Increased movement amplitude led to shortened onset latencies of the abdominal muscles and increased level of activation in TrA and ES. The activation magnitude of TrA was similar in acceleration and deceleration where the other muscles were specific to acceleration or deceleration. The findings show that arm movements need to be standardized when used as a method to evaluate trunk muscle activation patterns and that inclusion of the deceleration of the arms in the analysis allow the study of the relationship between trunk muscle activation and direction of perturbing torque during one and the same arm movement.
9.
  • Frykberg, Gunilla E, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal coordination of the sit-to-walk task in subjects with stroke and in controls
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. - 0003-9993 .- 1532-821X. ; 90:6, s. 1009-1017
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To explore events and describe phases for temporal coordination of the sit-to-walk (STW) task, within a semistandardized set up, in subjects with stroke and matched controls. In addition, to assess variability of STW phase duration and to compare the relative duration of STW phases between the 2 groups.Design: Cross-sectional.Setting: Research laboratory.Participants: A convenience sample of persons with hemiparesis (n=10; age 50–67y), more than 6 months after stroke and 10 controls matched for sex, age, height, and body mass index.Interventions: Not applicable.Main Outcome Measures: Relative duration of STW phases, SE of measurement in percentage of the mean, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).Results: Four STW phases were defined: rise preparation, transition, primary gait initiation, and secondary gait initiation. The subjects with stroke needed 54% more time to complete the STW task than the controls did. ICCs ranged from .38 to .66 and .22 to .57 in the stroke and control groups, respectively. SEs of measurement in percentage of the mean values were high, particularly in the transition phase: 54.1% (stroke) and 50.4% (controls). The generalized linear model demonstrated that the relative duration of the transition phase was significantly longer in the stroke group.Conclusions: The present results extend existing knowledge by presenting 4 new phases of temporal coordination of STW, within a semistandardized set-up, in persons with stroke and in controls. The high degree of variability regarding relative STW phase duration was probably a result of both the semistandardized set up and biological variability. The significant difference in the transition phase across the 2 groups requires further study.
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10.
  • Gibbs, Béatrice, et al. (författare)
  • TV-spel som läromedel i idrott och hälsa?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Idrott & hälsa : organ för Svenska idrottslärarföreningen. - Svenska idrottslärarföreningen. - 1653-1124. ; 2:8, s. 11-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • I projektet TV-spel som hälsofostran, som presenterades i nr 6 i Idrott och hälsa 2011, undersöks det lärande avseende kropp, fysisk aktivitet och hälsa som sker i ungdomars spelande av TV-spel som innefattar rörelse, så kallade exergames (Quennerstedt, Almqvist, Meckbach, & Öhman, 2011). I artikeln lyfte vi bland annat fram hur exergames i allt större utsträckning återfinns i flera länder (till exempel England, Kanada, Australien och USA) som intressanta redskap att använda i skolan, bland annat för att i utbildning stimulera barns och ungdomars vilja att vara fysiskt aktiva samt för att tackla överviktsfrågor. I samband med artikeln bifogades även en enkät i tidskriften som vände sig till lärare i idrott och hälsa i både grund- och gymnasieskolan. Enkäterna nådde med andra ord de som prenumererar på tidningen såsom idrottslärarstudenter och lärare i idrott och hälsa samt även de som tar del av tidningen vid samtliga grund- och gymnasieskolor i Sverige. Vi vill här samtidigt tacka alla lärare som tog sig tid att besvara enkäten.I denna artikel kommer vi som en uppföljning av våra analyser av enkätstudien att beskriva svenska lärares användning av TV-spel i idrott och hälsa samt de hinder och motiv som kan finnas med att använda spelen i undervisningen.Quennerstedt, M., Almqvist, J., Meckbach, J., & Öhman, M. (2011). Tv-spel som hälsofostran: om exergaming och ungdomars lärande om kropp, fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Idrott och hälsa, 138 (6), pp. 34-35.Statistiska centralbyrån. (2012-10-27). Statistiska centralbyrån. From Register över pedagogisk personal: http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____8480.aspx 
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