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1.
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2.
  • Aidanpää, J.-O, et al. (författare)
  • Developments in rotor dynamical modeling of hydropower units
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Emerging Trends in Rotor Dynamics : held in New Delhi, India, March 23 - March 26, 2009. - Dordrecht : Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag. - 9789400700192
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Akhtar, Farid, et al. (författare)
  • Aluminophosphate monoliths with high CO2-over-N2 selectivity and CO2 capture capacity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: RSC Advances. - 2046-2069. ; 4:99, s. 55877-55883
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monoliths of microporous aluminophosphates (AlPO4-17 and AlPO4-53) were structured by binder-freepulsed current processing. Such monoliths could be important for carbon capture from flue gas. TheAlPO4-17 and AlPO4-53 monoliths exhibited a tensile strength of 1.0 MPa and a CO2 adsorption capacityof 2.5 mmol g1 and 1.6 mmol g1, respectively at 101 kPa and 0 C. Analyses of single component CO2and N2 adsorption data indicated that the AlPO4-53 monoliths had an extraordinarily high CO2-over-N2selectivity from a binary gas mixture of 15 mol% CO2 and 85 mol% N2. The estimated CO2 capturecapacity of AlPO4-17 and AlPO4-53 monoliths in a typical pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process at 20C was higher than that of the commonly used zeolite 13X granules. Under cyclic sorption conditions,AlPO4-17 and AlPO4-53 monoliths were regenerated by lowering the pressure of CO2. Regeneration wasdone without application of heat, which would regenerate them to their full capacity for CO2 adsorption.
4.
  • Alakangas, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.
5.
  • Alhalaweh, Amjad, et al. (författare)
  • Solubility behavior and solution chemistry of indomethacin cocrystals in organic solvents
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Crystal Growth & Design. - 1528-7483. ; 11:9, s. 3923-3929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main objective of this study was to investigate the solubility behavior and solution chemistry of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) cocrystals in organic media. We also evaluated previously proposed models of cocrystal solubility in organic solvents. In addition, the solubility behavior of IND-SAC cocrystals was compared with that of indomethacin-nicotinamide (IND-NIC) cocrystals using the eutectic constant approach. Phase solubility diagrams of IND-SAC cocrystals in various solvents were generated and the transition concentrations, at which drug and cocrystals are in equilibrium with the solvents, were determined. The solubility of IND-SAC cocrystals was explained by the solubility product and solution complexation. The tested models were found to fit the experimental data and to adequately explain the solubility behavior of the cocrystals. The solution complexation of IND and SAC is negligible in ethyl acetate and low in methanol and ethanol. The IND-NIC cocrystals were more soluble than the IND-SAC cocrystals in all the solvents studied. The eutectic constants predicted both the solubility and the stability of the cocrystals. Understanding the solubility behavior and solution chemistry of cocrystals has important implications for the screening, scale-up, and formulation development of this solid form. Further, the determination of eutectic constants is a simple and resource sparing means of obtaining key information on cocrystal stability and solution behavior
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6.
  • Allen, Rodney, et al. (författare)
  • Global comparisons of volcanic-associated massive sulphide districts
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The timing and location of major ore deposits in an evolving Orogen. - London : Geological Society of London. - 186239122X ; s. 13-37
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Although volcanic-associated massive sulphide (VMS) deposits have been studied extensively, the geodynamic processes that control their genesis, location and timing remain poorly understood. Comparisons among major VMS districts, based on the same criteria, have been commenced in order to ascertain which are the key geological events that result in high-value deposits. The initial phase of this global project elicited information in a common format and brought together research teams to assess the critical factors and identify questions requiring further research. Some general conclusions have emerged. (1) All major VMS districts relate to major crustal extension resulting in graben subsidence, local or widespread deep marine conditions, and injection of mantle-derived mafic magma into the crust, commonly near convergent plate margins in a general back-arc setting. (2) Most of the world-class VMS districts have significant volumes of felsic volcanic rocks and are attributed to extension associated with evolved island arcs, island arcs with continental basement, continental margins, or thickened oceanic crust. (3) They occur in a part of the extensional province where peak extension was dramatic but short-lived (failed rifts). In almost all VMS districts, the time span for development of the major ore deposits is less than a few million years, regardless of the time span of the enclosing volcanic succession. (4) All of the major VMS districts show a coincidence of felsic and mafic volcanic rocks in the stratigraphic intervals that host the major ore deposits. However, it is not possible to generalize that specific magma compositions or affinities are preferentially related to major VMS deposits world-wide. (5) The main VMS ores are concentrated near the top of the major syn-rift felsic volcanic unit. They are commonly followed by a significant change in the pattern, composition and intensity of volcanism and sedimentation. (6) Most major VMS deposits are associated with proximal (near-vent) rhyolitic facies associations. In each district, deposits are often preferentially associated with a late stage in the evolution of a particular style of rhyolite volcano. (7) The chemistry of the footwall rocks appears to be the biggest control on the mineralogy of the ore deposits, although there may be some contribution from magmatic fluids. (8) Exhalites mark the ore horizon in some districts, but there is uncertainty about how to distinguish exhalites related to VMS from other exhalites and altered, bedded, fine grained tuffaceous rocks. (9) Most VMS districts have suffered fold-thrust belt type deformation, because they formed in short-lived extensional basins near plate margins, which become inverted and deformed during inevitable basin closure. (10) The specific timing and volcanic setting of many VMS deposits, suggest that either the felsic magmatic-hydrothermal cycle creates and focuses an important part of the ore solution, or that specific types of volcanism control when and where a metal-bearing geothermal solution can be focused and expelled to the sea floor, or both. This and other questions remain to be addressed in the next phase of the project. This will include in-depth accounts of VMS deposits and their regional setting and will focus on an integrated multi-disciplinary approach to determine how mineralisation, volcanic evolution and extensional tectonic evolution are interrelated in a number of world-class VMS districts.
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7.
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8.
  • Allen, Rodney, et al. (författare)
  • Setting of Zn-Cu-Au-Ag massive sulfide deposits in the evolution and facies architecture of a 1.9 Ga marine volcanic arc Skellefte district, Sweden
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Economic geology and the bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists. - 0361-0128. ; 91:6, s. 1022-1053
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Skellefte mining district occurs in an Early Proterozoic, mainly 1.90-1.87 Ga (Svecofennian) magmatic province of low to medium metamorphic grade in the Baltic Shield in northern Sweden. The district contains over 85 pyritic Zn-Cu-Au-Ag massive sulfide deposits and a few vein Au deposits and subeconomic porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits, The massive sulfide deposits mainly occur within, and especially along the top of: a regional felsic-dominant volcanic unit attributed to a stage of intense, extensional, continental margin are volcanism. From facies analysis we interpret the paleogeography of this stage to have comprised many scattered islands and shallow-water areas. surrounded by deeper seas. All the major massive sulfide ores occur in below-wave base facies associations: however, some ores occur close to stratigraphic intervals of above-wave base facies associations, and the summits of some volcanoes that host massive sulfides emerged above sea level. Intense marine volcanism was superceded at different times in different parts of tile district by a stage of reduced volcanism, uplift resulting in subregional disconformities, and then differential uplift and subsidence resulting in a complex horst and graben paleogeography. Uplift of the are is attributed to the relaxation of crustal extension and the emplacement of granitoids to shallow crustal levels. A few massive sulfide ores formed within the basal strata of this second stage. The horst and graben system was filled by prograding fluvial-deltaic sediments and mainly mafic lavas, and during this stage the Skellefte district was a transitional area between renewed are volcanism of more continental character to the north, and subsidence and basinal mudstone-turbidite sedimentation to the south. This whole volcanotectonic cycle occurred within 10 to 15 m.y. We define 26 main volcanic, sedimentary, and intrusive facies in the Skellefte district. The most abundant facies are (1) normal-graded pumiceous breccias, which are interpreted as syneruptive subaqueous mass flow units of pyroclastic debris, (2) porphyritic intrusions, and (3) mudstone and sandstone turbidites. Facies associations define seven main volcano types, which range from basaltic shields to andesite cones and rhyolite calderas. Despite this diversity of volcano types, most massive sulfide ol es are associated with one volcano type: subaqueous rhyolite cryptodome-tuff volcanoes. These rhyolite volcanoes are 2 to 10 km in diameter, 250 to 1,200 m thick at the center, and are characterized by a small to moderate volume rhyolitic pyroclastic unit, intruded by rhyolite cryptodomes, sills, and dikes. Massive sulfide ores occur near the top of the proximal (near vent) facies association The remarkable coincidence in space and time between the ores and this volcano type indicates an intimate, genetic relationship between the ores and the magmatic evolution of the volcanoes.Many of the massive sulfide ores occur within rapidly emplaced volcaniclastic facies and are interpreted to have formed by infiltration and replacement of these facies. Some of the ore deposits have characteristics of both marine massive sulfides and subaerial epithelial deposits. We suggest that massive sulfides in the Skellefte district span a range in ore deposit style from deep-water sea floor ores, to subsea-floor replacements, to shallow-water and possible subaerial synvolcanic replacements. Facies models are provided for the mineralized rhyolite volcanoes and volcanological guides are provided for exploration for blind ores within these volcanoes.
9.
  • Almer, J. , U Lienert, R. L. Peng, C. Schlauer and M. Odén, et al. (författare)
  • Strain and texture analysis of coatings using high-energy x-rays
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - 0021-8979. ; 94:1, s. 697-702
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the internal strain and crystallographic orientation (texture) in physical-vapor deposited metal nitride coatings of TiN and CrN. A high-energy diffraction technique is presented that uses synchrotron x rays and an area detector, and which allows the strain and intensity distributions of multiple crystallographic planes to be measured by a single x-ray exposure. Unique texture states and nonlinear sin2 ψ strain distributions are observed for all coatings investigated. Quantitative analysis indicates that existing micromechanical models can reasonably predict strain and corresponding stress for mixed-hkl reflections but are inadequate for fully describing measured data. Alternative mechanisms involving deposition-induced defects are proposed.
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10.
  • Almqvist, A., et al. (författare)
  • Homogenization of the unstationary incompressible Reynolds equation
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Tribology International. - 0301-679X. ; 40:9, s. 1344-1350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper is devoted to the effects of surface roughness during hydrodynamic lubrication. In the numerical analysis a very fine mesh is needed to resolve the surface roughness, suggesting some type of averaging. A rigorous way to do this is to use the general theory of homogenization. In most works about the influence of surface roughness, it is assumed that only the stationary surface is rough. This means that the governing Reynolds type equation does not involve time. However, recently, homogenization was successfully applied to analyze a situation where both surfaces are rough and the lubricant is assumed to have constant bulk modulus. In this paper we will consider a case where both surfaces are assumed to be rough, but the lubricant is incompressible. It is also clearly demonstrated, in this case that homogenization is an efficient approach. Moreover, several numerical results are presented and compared with those corresponding to where a constant bulk modulus is assumed to govern the lubricant compressibility. In particular, the result shows a significant difference in the asymptotic behavior between the incompressible case and that with constant bulk modulus.
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