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1.
  • Aho, Anna Carin, et al. (författare)
  • Perceptions of the transition from receiving the diagnosis recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy to becoming in need of human support and using a wheelchair an interview study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165. ; 41:19, s. 2289-2298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To describe perceptions of the transition from receiving the diagnosis recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy to becoming in need of human support to manage daily life and using a wheelchair for ambulation, from the affected young adults' and their parents' perspectives.METHOD: A qualitative and descriptive study design was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 young adults diagnosed with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and 19 parents. Phenomenography was used for data analysis.RESULTS: The diagnosis was described as being a shock and difficult to comprehend but also as a relief and a tool for information. Beginning to use a wheelchair was perceived to be mentally difficult but it also provided freedom. New ways of living involved physical, emotional, practical, and social difficulties as well as experiences of learning to adapt to the disease. The transition was overshadowed by concern about disease progression and influenced by facilitating factors, which were young adult being seen as a person; supportive family and friends; mobilized internal resources; meaningful daily activities; adapted environment; and professional support.CONCLUSIONS: The different perceptions expressed in this study highlight the importance of identifying personal perceptions and needs in order to optimize support provided by healthcare professionals.Implications for RehabilitationThe different perceptions described in this study emphasize the need for person-centered care for young adults living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and their parents.Regular controls and professional support to cope with the disease and its consequences should be offered, not only at the time of diagnosis but also throughout disease progression.Beginning to use a wheelchair can be a psychologically distressing process, which has to be acknowledged by healthcare professionals when introducing it.Healthcare professionals should not only recognize the importance of having social relations and activities that are meaningful but also be a link to authorities in society and to interest organizations that can help to facilitate the person's management of the disease.
2.
  • Arvidsson, Anna, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Surrogate mother – praiseworthy or stigmatized a qualitative study on perceptions of surrogacy in Assam, India
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Surrogacy is a reproductive practice that has been strongly marketed in India as a solution for childless couples. As a result, the number of surrogacy clinics is increasing. Meanwhile, a global discourse on surrogacy, originating from a Western perspective, has characterized surrogacy as being exploitative of women in low-income settings, where poverty drives them to become surrogate mothers.OBJECTIVE: This study explored perspectives on surrogacy from men and women in Assam, an Indian state known to be a low-income setting. Surrogacy arrangements in Assam are still uncommon. It can be expected that the dominant global discourses on surrogacy will be unfamiliar to the general population, and the objective was also to position the results within the divergent global discourses of surrogacy.METHODS:  In order to explore local views on surrogacy, we conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions with people from various socioeconomic groups in Assam.RESULTS: Our findings reveal that people in Assam perceive surrogacy as a good option for a childless couple, as it would result in a child who is a 'blood' relation - something highly desirable for sociocultural reasons. However, the part played by the surrogate mother complicates local views on surrogacy. Most people consider payment to the surrogate mother contrary to societal norms. A surrogate mother is also often judged in a moral light, either as a 'bad mother' for selling her child, or as a 'noble woman' who has helped a childless couple and deserves payment for her services.CONCLUSIONS: In order to decrease the stigmatization of women, a regulatory policy is needed that will take into account the complex understandings of surrogacy and perceptions of surrogate mothers in Indian society. In policy, the possible effect of the dominant exploitation discourse needs to be modulated by local understandings of this reproduction method.
3.
4.
  • Borevi, Karin, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Välfärdsstaten och de nyanlända en flyktingplaceringspolitisk probleminventering
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to make an inventory overview of challenges and problems in the area of refugee settlement policies. An analysis is made of the political development, from the mid 1980s and onwards, of this hotly debated issue in Swedish politics. Then we identify a number of principal themes and problems which arise in relation to questions of dispersal programmes and refugee reception. The paper is based on an ongoing research project at Uppsala University, where refugee settlement policies are studied from a comparative Scandinavian perspective, focusing both on the national level and on the local level.
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5.
  • Feldman, Inna, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of a high-intensity versus a low-intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dental setting long-term follow-up
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a high-intensity and a low-intensity smoking cessation treatment programme (HIT and LIT) using long-term follow-up effectiveness data and to validate the cost-effectiveness results based on short-term follow-up.Design and outcome measures: Intervention effectiveness was estimated in a randomised controlled trial as numbers of abstinent participants after 1 and 5-8 years of follow-up. The economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective using a Markov model by estimating future disease-related costs (in Euro (Euro) 2018) and health effects (in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)). Programmes were explicitly compared in an incremental analysis, and the results were presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.Setting: The study was conducted in dental clinics in Sweden.Participants: 294 smokers aged 19-71 years were included in the study.Interventions: Behaviour therapy, coaching and pharmacological advice (HIT) was compared with one counselling session introducing a conventional self-help programme (LIT).Results: The more costly HIT led to higher number of 6-month continuous abstinent participants after 1 year and higher number of sustained abstinent participants after 5-8 years, which translates into larger societal costs avoided and health gains than LIT. The incremental cost/QALY of HIT compared with LIT amounted to Euro918 and Euro3786 using short-term and long-term effectiveness, respectively, which is considered very cost-effective in Sweden.Conclusion: CEA favours the more costly HIT if decision makers are willing to spend at least Euro4000/QALY for tobacco cessation treatment.
6.
  • Feldmann, Ingalill, et al. (författare)
  • Anchorage reinforcement with miniscrews and molar blocks in adolescents A randomized controlled trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. - MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0889-5406 .- 1097-6752. ; 154:6, s. 758-767
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Anchorage can be reinforced in many ways. Due to the variety of anchorage concepts, only a few general conclusions can be drawn. Therefore, more research is needed to investigate specific concepts with specific indications. The objective of this trial was to compare the anchorage capacities of miniscrews and molar blocks.Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 2 parallel arms. The trial was conducted at the Public Dental Service Orthodontic Clinic in Gavle, Sweden. Participants were adolescents who needed orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance, extraction of the maxillary first premolars, and anchorage reinforcement. In group A, miniscrews were used as direct anchorage during space closure. In group B, molar blocks were used as anchorage reinforcement during leveling and alignment and space closure. The primary outcome was loss of anchorage assessed as maxillary first molar movement. Random allocation was maintained with a simple randomization stratified by sex. The observer was blinded to the allocations during the measurements.Results: Forty participants each were randomized to groups A and B. Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, meaning that all participants, successful or not, were included in the analysis. Group A showed a mean anchorage loss of 1.2 mm during leveling and alignment. During space closure with miniscrews, no significant anchorage loss was found. Group B showed mean anchorage losses of 1.4 mm during leveling and alignment and 2.4 mm during space closure. No serious harms were detected. The first molar rotation, torque, and tipping showed different characteristics during the treatment phases.Conclusion: Miniscrews can be recommended for anchorage reinforcement. Depending on the need for anchorage reinforcement, miniscrews can be inserted at the beginning of treatment or when space closure starts. Molar blocks cannot be recommended for anchorage reinforcement.Protocol: The protocol was published after trial commencement.
7.
  • Flink, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Patient-reported negative experiences related to caries and its treatment among Swedish adult patients
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Oral Health. - BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1472-6831 .- 1472-6831. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It has been suggested that dental caries should be regarded as a chronic disease as many individuals repeatedly develop new caries lesions. How this is perceived by caries active patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported attitudes and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment.Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. The questionnaire included items regarding patient-reported oral health; attitudes towards caries and efforts to prevent them; and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment. Questionnaire data were supplemented with data on caries and caries prophylaxis from patients' dental records. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on items related to patients' perceptions of problems to see whether scales could be created. Experiences, perceptions and dental records of CA and CI patients were compared.Results: The overall response rate was 69%. Dental records confirmed that CA patients had significantly more decayed teeth per year and a longer period of caries-active time than CI patients. Factor analysis resulted in 3 distinct scales measuring problems related to caries; 1) caries-related information; 2) negative experiences; and 3) negative treatment/staff attitudes. A fourth scale measuring perceived problems related to caries was also created. The CA group reported significantly more problems related to caries and dental treatment, received significantly more caries-related information, and reported significantly more negative treatment experiences compared to CI patients.Conclusions: Caries prophylaxis methods need to be improved in order to better meet the needs of caries active patients and to create a more positive experience with dental care.
8.
  • Isacsson, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Pain relief following a single-dose intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone in the temporomandibular joint arthralgia-A multicentre randomised controlled trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: J Oral Rehabil. - 0305-182X. ; 46:1, s. 5-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia is a painful condition assumed to be associated with local inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy for reducing pain of a single-dose intra-articular (IA) injection of methylprednisolone to the TMJ. The hypothesis was that methylprednisolone would effectively reduce TMJ pain. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre, controlled study included visits for enrolment, treatment and 4-week follow-up. The study included patients 18 years and older who had been diagnosed with unilateral TMJ arthralgia. All participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 mL IA injections of methylprednisolone or saline. The primary outcome was change in recorded pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at maximum jaw opening, analysed in the per protocol population. RESULTS: In total, 54 patients were randomly assigned to single-dose IA injections with methylprednisolone (n = 27) or saline (n = 27). Between baseline and the 4-week follow-up, VAS-rated pain intensity at maximum jaw opening decreased from a mean of 61.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.1; 70.7) to 33.9 (95% CI: 21.6; 46.2) in the methylprednisolone group and from 59.6 (95% CI: 50.7; 65.9) to 33.9 (95% CI: 23.8; 43.9) in the saline group. The between-group difference was not significant (P = 0.812). Treatment-related adverse events were doubled in the methylprednisolone group. CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone provided no additional benefit for reducing pain, but caused more harm compared with saline following a single-dose IA injection in patients with TMJ arthralgia.
9.
  • Kamwesiga, Julius T., et al. (författare)
  • A feasibility study of a mobile phone supported family-centred ADL intervention, F@ce™, after stroke in Uganda
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Globalization and health. - BMC. - 1744-8603. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is a lack of evidence-based health services to reduce the impact of stroke in low-income countries at a personal, family or community level. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of: i) a mobile phone supported family-centred intervention (F@ce™), and ii) the study design for evaluating the effects of the intervention on the perceived impact of stroke; perceived participation in everyday life; and self-efficacy in everyday activities amongst persons with stroke and their families in Uganda. Methods: The study comprised a pre-post design with an intervention group (IG) receiving the F@ce™ and a control group (CG). The inclusion criteria’s were: a) confirmed stroke diagnosis, b) access to and ability to use a mobile phone, c) ability to communicate in English and/or Luganda, d) > 18 years, e) residents in Kampala, and f) a Modified Rankin Scale level 2 to 4. The aim of the F@ceTM was to increase functioning in daily activities for persons living with the consequences of stroke, and participation in everyday life for persons with stroke and their families. The F@ce™ was an eight-week family-centred intervention, which entailed goal setting and problem-solving strategies, daily reminders and self-rated follow-ups of performance by short message service (SMS). Data were collected in the participants’ home environment at baseline and after eight weeks. Data on acceptability of the F@ce™ and study procedures were collected by log-books and the responses of the SMS follow ups on the server. The primary outcomes were performance and satisfaction of valued daily activities in everyday life using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), self-efficacy in performance of activities in daily life. Results: The IG comprised n = 13 and the CG n = 15. There were differences between the IG and CG in changes between baseline and follow-up in the primary outcomes COPM (performance component) and self-efficacy in favour of F@ce™. Overall with minor modifications the intervention and the study design were feasible for all participants involved. Conclusion: The results support the need for further research to rigorously evaluate the effects of F@ce™ since the intervention appears to be feasible for persons with stroke and their family members.
10.
  • Kuehn, Danilo, et al. (författare)
  • Capabilities of Angle Resolved Time of Flight electron spectroscopy with the 60 degrees wide angle acceptance lens
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. - Elsevier. - 0368-2048 .- 1873-2526. ; 224, s. 45-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The simultaneous detection of energy, momentum and temporal information in electron spectroscopy is the key aspect to enhance the detection efficiency in order to broaden the range of scientific applications. Employing a novel 60 degrees wide angle acceptance lens system, based on an additional accelerating electron optical element, leads to a significant enhancement in transmission over the previously employed 30 degrees electron lenses. Due to the performance gain, optimized capabilities for time resolved electron spectroscopy and other high transmission applications with pulsed ionizing radiation have been obtained. The energy resolution and transmission have been determined experimentally utilizing BESSY II as a photon source. Four different and complementary lens modes have been characterized. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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