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  • A World of Standards
  • 2000
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this insightful discussion of the phenomenon of standardization in organizations and society at large, the authors regard standards as a form of regulation enabling a higher degree of global order in the modern world, and argue that they represent an alternative to markets and hierarchies as a mode of social organization.
  • Aburto, J., et al. (författare)
  • Territorial user rights for artisanal fisheries in Chile : intended and unintended outcomes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management. - 0964-5691 .- 1873-524X. ; 71, s. 284-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Granting property property rights in fisheries is assumed to provide incentives for sustainable resource exploitation. These rights might also open other income options for fishers, including some that go beyond the original objectives intended by authorities establishing the right. The opportunity for alternative uses is especially high if the details of these rights are not clearly identified. In Chile, a de novo TURF (Territorial User Rights for Fishery) system, called Management Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (Areas de Manejo y Explotacion de Recursos Bentonicos-AMERB) was created to achieve sustainable exploitation of benthic resources. This study compares two small-scale fishing communities in Chile, Guayacan and Huentelauquen, representing two typical contrasting settings, regarding geographical contexts and surroundings, origin, history, location, social embeddedness, main fisheries activities as well as the motivation and the process through which they acquired their AMERB. While in Guayacan the main fishing activity outside the AMERB is the giant squid and finfish fishery, in Huentelauquen the main and traditional activity has been diving for benthic resources. The objectives to acquire their AMERBs were different in both cases. Huentelauquen applied the AMERB for their traditional activity, the fishery of Concholepas concholepas ("loco"), thus in accordance with the official objective of the AMERB. Due to reduced catches of loco, fishers also added the collection of kelps, using their AMERB to control access to the entire coast surrounding their fishing community, beyond the limits of their AMERB. In Guayacan the AMERB, applied for the management of scallops and a species of red algae, began to be used for sea squirt aquaculture. Within the framework of sustainable fisheries implied by the AMERBs, there was in both cases a clear expectation to gain new sources of income. However with time both AMERBs are being used as a tool for territorial exclusion of other fishers beyond the limits of their respective AMERBs. In Huentelauquen fishers mention mostly negative aspects about the performance of their AMERB, given the poor economic results, being unsatisfied with the AMERB system in general, because they feel that the system disrupted their traditional migration along the coast. In Guayacan, fishers mentioned mostly positive aspects for their AMERB, as it was an opportunity to add new activities. Both examples show that rights-based management approaches are very attractive; they could promote new uses or developments, whose sustainability nevertheless needs to be analyzed further. The analyzed case studies show that, contrary to how the system was developed in Chile, a more bottom-up implementation of new management arrangements may make it easier to agree on common objectives, and/or leave more freedom for fishers to adjust and arrange their livelihood. Considering the importance the AMERBs have acquired for fishers, these kinds of systems need flexible regulations in order that fishers can adapt the system to local traditions, uses or needs and also to their learning and adapting capacities.
  • Adjam, Maryam, 1977- (författare)
  • Minnesspår : Hågkomstens rum och rörelse i skuggan av flykt
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Focusing on the memories of Estonian refugees moving to Sweden in the wake of World War II, I analyze the concepts of “memory space” and history within the framework of the Escape as a master narrative. Following the research participants to the sites of their memories in Estonia and Sweden today, raised the questions what constitutes a lived memory space, and how is history defined within it?Through a combination of a phenomenological analysis of memory’s lived ex­perience, using Walter Benjamin’s concept of montage as radical remembering and its dialectical relation to history, I show how embodied memories shape their own space, a space not always framed by historical master narratives and identity posi­tions, but rather a searching space that is always changing. Dealing with the politics of place and representations, these memories are constantly loaded and unloaded with meaning. Yet the space of lived memory is not always a creation of meaning. Walking around, searching for traces, a memory space confronts the place and maps its own geography. It turns to a spatial and temporal flow, which intertwines place and experience, and erases the past and future as homogeneous categories. It is a living space of memory, rather than a memorial space of representations.The analysis focuses further on the tensions between remembering as a dialogue with history and memory’s ongoing acts of embodied experience. The position of in-betweenness appears in these stories of escape, not as a state of in-between home and away, past and present, but rather as an ongoing space-making process be­tween different modes and layers of memory. This is a process aware of the constant changes in the understandings of both history and personal experiences, intertwin­ing these new interpretations with embodied memory and thereby constantly add­ing new layers of experience to it. Memory’s tracing illuminates a memory poetics of the meanwhile and the in-between, which refuses historical closure.
  • Agianian, Bogos, et al. (författare)
  • Preliminary characterization of hemolymph coagulation in Anopheles gambiae larvae
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Developmental and Comparative Immunology. - 0145-305X .- 1879-0089. ; 31:9, s. 879-888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hemolymph coagulation is a first response to injury, impeding infection, and ending bleeding. Little is known about its molecular basis in insects, but clotting factors have been identified in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we have begun to study coagulation in the aquatic larvae of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae using methods developed for Drosophila. A delicate clot was seen by light microscopy, and pullout and proteomic analysis identified phenoloxidase and apolipophorin-I as major candidate clotting factors. Electron microscopic analysis confirmed clot formation and revealed it contains fine molecular sheets, most likely a result of lipophorin assembly. Phenoloxidase appears to be more critical in clot formation in Anopheles than in Drosophila. The Anopheles larval clot thus differs in formation, structure, and composition from the clot in Drosophila, confirming the need to study coagulation in different insect species to learn more about its evolution and adaptation to different lifestyles.
  • Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of National Parliaments over Domestic European Union Policies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Political Studies. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0080-6757 .- 1467-9477. ; 32:4, s. 359-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this article we present survey results on the Swedish and Finnish parliamentarians' perceived influence over domestic decision-making in EU-matters. In the literature the parliaments in Sweden and Finland are classified as powerful parliaments that can exert considerable influence in the domestic EU policy-making. Moreover, Finland and Sweden joined the EU at the same time. Therefore the overall expectation is that the parliaments should be equally powerful. However, the results from our survey indicate a significant difference in perceived influence between the two parliaments. It is obvious that the Swedish parliamentarians perceive themselves as more marginalized in relation to the Government than the Finnish parliamentarians. After having tried different explanations we conclude that the differences can be ascribed to the parliaments' different organisational set-ups for the oversight of the Government.
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