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  • Akula, Srinivas (författare)
  • Channel catfish granzyme-like I is a highly specific serine protease with metase activity that is expressed by fish NK-like cells
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series. - Swden : Elsevier. - 1474-6670.
  • Konstnärligt arbete (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we present the extended cleavage specificity of catfish granzyme-like I, previously identified in fish NK-like cells. This protease has been characterised using substrate phage display and further validated by using a panel of recombinant substrates. A strict preference for Met in the P1 (cleavage) position, indicating metase specificity was observed. A screening of potential in vivo substrates was performed based on the derived P5-P3′ consensus: Arg-Val-Thr-Gly-Met↓Ser-Leu-Val. Channel catfish caspase 6 was one very interesting potential target identified. This site was present in an adjacent position to the classic caspase activation site (Asp179 in human caspase 6). Cleavage of this site (hence potential activation) by the catfish granzyme-like I could reveal a novel mechanism of caspase 6 activation. This poses an interesting idea that the role of granzyme-like proteases in the activation of caspase dependent apoptosis mechanisms has been conserved for over 400 million years.
  • Akula, Srinivas, 1982- (författare)
  • Fc Receptors for Immunoglobulins and Their Appearance during Vertebrate Evolution
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - United States of America. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203.
  • Konstnärligt arbete (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR gamma chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR.
  • Akula, Srinivas, 1982- (författare)
  • Granule Associated Serine Proteases of Hematopoietic Cells – An Analysis of Their Appearance and Diversification during Vertebrate Evolution
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - POLAND. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203.
  • Konstnärligt arbete (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serine proteases are among the most abundant granule constituents of several hematopoietic cell lineages including mast cells, neutrophils, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. These proteases are stored in their active form in the cytoplasmic granules and in mammals are encoded from four different chromosomal loci: the chymase locus, the met-ase locus, the T cell tryptase and the mast cell tryptase locus. In order to study their appearance during vertebrate evolution we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of related genes and gene loci from a large panel of metazoan animals from sea urchins to placental mammals for three of these loci: the chymase, met-ase and granzyme A/K loci. Genes related to mammalian granzymes A and K were the most well conserved and could be traced as far back to cartilaginous fish. Here, the granzyme A and K genes were found in essentially the same chromosomal location from sharks to humans. However in sharks, no genes clearly identifiable as members of the chymase or met-ase loci were found. A selection of these genes seemed to appear with bony fish, but sometimes in other loci. Genes related to mammalian met-ase locus genes were found in bony fish. Here, the most well conserved member was complement factor D. However, genes distantly related to the neutrophil proteases were also identified in this locus in several bony fish species, indicating that this locus is also old and appeared at the base of bony fish. In fish, a few of the chymase locus-related genes were found in a locus with bordering genes other than the mammalian chymase locus and some were found in the fish met-ase locus. This indicates that a convergent evolution rather than divergent evolution has resulted in chymase locus-related genes in bony fish
  • Álvarez Montalbán, Fernando, 1959- (författare)
  • Att lära sig nya språk genom att sjunga
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Communicare. - Ösfold, Norge. - 0259-0069. ; :1, s. 34-39
  • Konstnärligt arbete (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Artikel har två syften. Å ena sidan, vill jag påminna om fördelarna med att aktivt arbeta med så väl lyssnande, som av läsning och sjungande av sånger. Å Andra sidan, vill jag förespråka möjligheterna att lära sig ett språk utifrån skapande av sångtexter. I båda fallen, presenterar jag några exempel på sånger och några förslag till lingvistisk och musikalisk exploatering.
  • Álvarez Montalbán, Fernando, 1959- (författare)
  • Cantando se entiende la gente
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: LMS : Lingua. - 0023-6330. ; 1, s. 37-40
  • Konstnärligt arbete (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Appelbaum, Robert, 1952- (författare)
  • The Looking Glass
  • 2016
  • Konstnärligt arbete (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Appelbaum, Robert (författare)
  • Working the Aisles: A Life in Consumption
  • 2014
  • Konstnärligt arbete (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Working the Aisles takes the reader on tumultuous driving trips across the United States and France, on phone sex escapades in San Francisco, on banking battles in Sweden, and many other adventures – including, of course, on trips to supermarkets, where the author has had to ‘work the aisles’. Moving back and forth through time, like a novelist, indeed in something of a memoirist tour de force, the book develops the story of struggle, of poverty and depression, but also of gaiety and desire, of a will to live in spite of it all, and to keep working the aisles. It moves the reader through highs and lows, through episodes of ecstasy and thoughts about suicide, and tells how this particular Everyman ended up sane but sorry.
  • Baharudin, Zikri Abadi (författare)
  • Characterizations of ground flashes from tropic to northern region
  • 2014
  • Konstnärligt arbete (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis portrays new information concerning the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes or ground flashes produced by thunderclouds. It emphasizes the importance of characterizing lightning studies as the relationship between lightning mechanisms, and of incorporating the influence of geographical location, latitude and storm type. Sweden, Malaysia and USA were chosen as the main locations for field experiments in 2009 to 2011 to gather a significant number of negative and positive CG flashes. This work provided data on a total of 1792 CG lightning flashes (1685 negative and 107 positive ones) from a total of 53 thunderstorms by monitoring both the slow and the fast electric field and the narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals simultaneously. This thesis is comprised of: (i) the relationship of the Low Positive Charge Region (LPCR) and Preliminary Breakdown Pulse (PBP) trains to the occurrence of negative CG, (ii) slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes in positive and negative ground flashes, and (iii) the occurrence of positive and negative ground flashes. It was revealed that the PBP train appeared have a higher strength in the in Sweden. The strength of the PBP train was caused by the LPCR; in contrast,  weak PBP trains were characteristic in tropical countries constituting insignificant LPCR and needing little energy to break the “blocking” agent to allow the flash to propagate downward to the ground. The second contribution concerns the characteristics of the PBP train mentioned; this includes novel information for Malaysia. Further, it is stated that there are some different characteristics in the PBP trains in Johor, Malaysia and Florida, USA. The studies of slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes clarifies unclear features concerning the starting position of slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes in positive and negative ground flashes. It was found that the slow field changes did not occur before the initial process of the commencement of preliminary breakdown. Single-station electric field measurements incorporating narrowband radiation field measurement and high resolution transient recording (12 bits) with an accuracy of several nanoseconds, allows one to distinguish between the intracloud activities and the preceding processes of ground flashes. The results for the interstroke intervals, amplitude distribution of subsequent return-stroke (SRS) and the number of strokes per flash in the tropics, subtropics and northern regions were similar. Finally, a significant number of positive return-stroke (RS) electric fields provided statistically significant information on the characteristics of these strokes.
  • Baharudin, Zikri Abadi, et al. (författare)
  • Electric field changes generated by preliminary breakdown pulse for positive lightning ground flashes in Sweden
  • ????
  • Konstnärligt arbete (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is the new study of the electric field changes generated by the preliminary breakdown for positive cloud-to-ground flashes which concerning on the association of slow field changes in preliminary breakdown process. In this study, a 107 positive cloud-to-ground lightning flashes recorded from the total of 14 thunderstorms generated by the whole flash were examined. The electric fields were measured with nanosecond resolution by using the slow electric field, fast electric field and narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals simultaneously. Our result shows that there is a pre-starting time, i.e. the duration between the first preliminary breakdown pulse and slow field changes starting point, which is found to be after the first preliminary breakdown pulse. The pre-starting time has the arithmetic mean – 3.0 ms and geometric mean – 1.8 ms, ranging from 0.3 to 21.7 ms. This study is consistent with the latest finding for the slow field changes in negative ground flashes where the slow field changes never start before the preliminary breakdown process.
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