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  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • The Cost of Persistent Asthma in Europe : An International Population-Based Study in Adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. - 1018-2438 .- 1423-0097. ; 160:1, s. 93-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study is aimed at providing a real-world evaluation of the economic cost of persistent asthma among European adults according to the degree of disease control [as defined by the 2006 Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines]. Methods: A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study was carried out on 462 patients aged 30-54 years with persistent asthma (according to the 2002 GINA definition), who were identified in general population samples from 11 European countries and examined in clinical settings in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II between 1999 and 2002. The cost estimates were computed from the societal perspective following the bottom-up approach on the basis of rates, wages and prices in 2004 (obtained at the national level from official sources), and were then converted to the 2010 values. Results: The mean total cost per patient was EUR 1,583 and was largely driven by indirect costs (i.e. lost working days and days with limited, not work-related activities 62.5%). The expected total cost in the population aged 30-54 years of the 11 European countries was EUR 4.3 billion (EUR 19.3 billion when extended to the whole European population aged from 15 to 64 years). The mean total cost per patient ranged from EUR 509 (controlled asthma) to EUR 2,281 (uncontrolled disease). Chronic cough or phlegm and having a high BMI significantly increased the individual total cost. Conclusions: Among European adults, the cost of persistent asthma drastically increases as disease control decreases. Therefore, substantial cost savings could be obtained through the proper management of adult patients in Europe.
  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Smoking in Allergy and Asthma : Lessons from the ECRHS
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. - 1529-7322 .- 1534-6315. ; 12:3, s. 185-191
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is an international multicenter cohort study of asthma, allergy, and lung function that began in the early-1990s with recruitment of population-based samples of 20- to 44-year-old adults, mainly in Europe. The aims of the study are broad ranging but include assessment of the role of in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and active smoking on the incidence, prevalence, and prognosis of allergy and asthma. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses looking at these associations have been conducted, sometimes only using information collected in one country, and on other occasions using information collected in all the participating centers. This article summarizes the results from these various publications from this large epidemiologic study.
  • Ali, M. A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial potential of Saccharomyces boulardii extracts and fractions
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Sciences Research. - 1816-157X .- 1819-544X. ; 8:8, s. 4537-4543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different extracts of viable therapeutic Saccharomyces boulardii cells were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Water, methanol, isopropanol, n-butanol and ethanol were used as solvents for extraction. Ethanol-extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity towards both strains, followed by water-extract. No antimicrobial activity could be detected on testing methanol-extract towards both strains. Ethanol- and water-extracts, cells remaining after water and ethanol extraction and broth were also tested for their antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, non-filamentous and filamentous fungi and showed considerable amounts of antimicrobial activities. Ethanol extracts exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains, was then fractionated on a Sephadex G-100 column and the obtained fractions were examined using the agar-well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, C. albicans and Aspergillus niger. Results obtained indicate the presence of different scattered active fractions with different potencies against the four tested microorganisms. A large scale fermentation process was conducted using a BioFlo benchtop-15L Fermentor/ Bioreactor and the products were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities.
  • Alimohammadi, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • Pulmonary Autoimmunity as a Feature of Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 and Identification of KCNRG as a Bronchial Autoantigen
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 106:11, s. 4396-4401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) suffer from multiple organ-specific autoimmunity with autoantibodies against target tissue-specific autoantigens. Endocrine and nonendocrine organs such as skin, hair follicles, and liver are targeted by the immune system. Despite sporadic observations of pulmonary symptoms among APS-1 patients, an autoimmune mechanism for pulmonary involvement has not been elucidated. We report here on a subset of APS-1 patients with respiratory symptoms. Eight patients with pulmonary involvement were identified. Severe airway obstruction was found in 4 patients, leading to death in 2. Immunoscreening of a cDNA library using serum samples from a patient with APS-1 and obstructive respiratory symptoms identified a putative potassium channel regulator (KCNRG) as a pulmonary autoantigen. Reactivity to recombinant KCNRG was assessed in 110 APS-1 patients by using immunoprecipitation. Autoantibodies to KCNRG were present in 7 of the 8 patients with respiratory symptoms, but in only 1 of 102 APS-1 patients without respiratory symptoms. Expression of KCNRG messenger RNA and protein was found to be predominantly restricted to the epithelial cells of terminal bronchioles. Autoantibodies to KCNRG, a protein mainly expressed in bronchial epithelium, are strongly associated with pulmonary involvement in APS-1. These findings may facilitate the recognition, diagnosis, characterization, and understanding of the pulmonary manifestations of APS-1.
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