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Sökning: LAR1:uu > (2005-2009) > Isaksson Anders

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  • Andersson, Claes R., et al. (författare)
  • Bayesian detection of periodic mRNA time profiles withouth use of training examples
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: BMC Bioinformatics. - 1471-2105. ; 7, s. 63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Detection of periodically expressed genes from microarray data without use of known periodic and non-periodic training examples is an important problem, e.g. for identifying genes regulated by the cell-cycle in poorly characterised organisms. Commonly the investigator is only interested in genes expressed at a particular frequency that characterizes the process under study but this frequency is seldom exactly known. Previously proposed detector designs require access to labelled training examples and do not allow systematic incorporation of diffuse prior knowledge available about the period time. RESULTS: A learning-free Bayesian detector that does not rely on labelled training examples and allows incorporation of prior knowledge about the period time is introduced. It is shown to outperform two recently proposed alternative learning-free detectors on simulated data generated with models that are different from the one used for detector design. Results from applying the detector to mRNA expression time profiles from S. cerevisiae showsthat the genes detected as periodically expressed only contain a small fraction of the cell-cycle genes inferred from mutant phenotype. For example, when the probability of false alarm was equal to 7%, only 12% of the cell-cycle genes were detected. The genes detected as periodically expressed were found to have a statistically significant overrepresentation of known cell-cycle regulated sequence motifs. One known sequence motif and 18 putative motifs, previously not associated with periodic expression, were also over represented. CONCLUSION: In comparison with recently proposed alternative learning-free detectors for periodic gene expression, Bayesian inference allows systematic incorporation of diffuse a priori knowledge about, e.g. the period time. This results in relative performance improvements due to increased robustness against errors in the underlying assumptions. Results from applying the detector to mRNA expression time profiles from S. cerevisiae include several new findings that deserve further experimental studies.
  • Andersson, Claes R., et al. (författare)
  • In vitro drug sensitivity-gene expression correlations involve a tissue of origin dependency
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of chemical information and modeling. - 1549-9596. ; 47:1, s. 239-248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major concern of chemogenomics is to associate drug activity with biological variables. Several reports have clustered cell line drug activity profiles as well as drug activity-gene expression correlation profiles and noted that the resulting groupings differ but still reflect mechanism of action. The present paper shows that these discrepancies can be viewed as a weighting of drug-drug distances, the weights depending on which cell lines the two drugs differ in.
  • Andersson, Claes R., et al. (författare)
  • Revealing cell cycle control by combining model-based detection of periodic expression with novel cis-regulatory descriptors
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Systems Biology. - 1752-0509. ; 1, s. 45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We address the issue of explaining the presence or absence of phase-specific transcription in budding yeast cultures under different conditions. To this end we use a model-based detector of gene expression periodicity to divide genes into classes depending on their behavior in experiments using different synchronization methods. While computational inference of gene regulatory circuits typically relies on expression similarity (clustering) in order to find classes of potentially co-regulated genes, this method instead takes advantage of known time profile signatures related to the studied process. Results: We explain the regulatory mechanisms of the inferred periodic classes with cis-regulatory descriptors that combine upstream sequence motifs with experimentally determined binding of transcription factors. By systematic statistical analysis we show that periodic classes are best explained by combinations of descriptors rather than single descriptors, and that different combinations correspond to periodic expression in different classes. We also find evidence for additive regulation in that the combinations of cis-regulatory descriptors associated with genes periodically expressed in fewer conditions are frequently subsets of combinations associated with genes periodically expression in more conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach retrieves combinations that are more specific towards known cell-cycle related regulators than the frequently used clustering approach. Conclusion: The results illustrate how a model-based approach to expression analysis may be particularly well suited to detect biologically relevant mechanisms. Our new approach makes it possible to provide more refined hypotheses about regulatory mechanisms of the cell cycle and it can easily be adjusted to reveal regulation of other, non-periodic, cellular processes.
  • Fryknäs, Mårten, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotype-based screening of mechanistically annotated compounds in combination with gene expression and pathway analysis identifies candidate drug targets in a human squamous carcinoma cell model
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomolecular Screening. - 1087-0571. ; 11:5, s. 457-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The squamous cell carcinoma HeLa cell line and an epithelial cell line hTERT-RPE with a nonmalignant phenotype were interrogated for HeLa cell selectivity in response to 1267 annotated compounds representing 56 pharmacological classes. Selective cytotoxic activity was observed for 14 of these compounds dominated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, which tended to span a representation of the chemical descriptor space of the library. The PDE inhibitors induced delayed cell death with features compatible with classical apoptosis. The PDE inhibitors were largely inactive when tested against a cell line panel consisting of hematological and nonsquamous epithelial phenotypes. In a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis, PDE3A and PDE2A were found to be significantly increased in HeLa cells compared to the other cell lines. The pathway analysis software PathwayAssist was subsequently used to extract a list of proteins and small molecules retrieved from Medline abstracts associated with the hit compounds. The resulting list consisted of major parts of the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway linking to ERK, P38, and AKT. This molecular network may provide a basis for further exploitation of novel candidate targets for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Fryknäs, Mårten, et al. (författare)
  • STAT1 signaling is associated with acquired crossresistance to doxorubicin and radiation in myeloma cell lines
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 120:1, s. 189-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The myeloma cell line RPMI 8226/S and its doxorubicin resistant subline 8226/Dox40 were used as models to explore the potential importance of the STAT1 signaling pathway in drug and radiation resistance. The 40-fold doxorubicin resistant subline 8226/Dox40 was found to be crossresistant to single doses of 4 and 8 Gy of radiation. A genome-wide mRNA expression study comparing the 8226/Dox40 cell line to its parental line was performed to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Seventeen of the top 50 overexpressed genes have previously been implicated in the STAT1 signaling pathway. STAT1 was over expressed both at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, analyses of nuclear extracts showed higher abundance of phosphorylated STAT1 (Tyr 701) in the resistant subline. Preexposure of the crossresistant cells to the STAT1 inhibiting drug fludarabine reduced expression of overexpressed genes and enhanced the effects of both doxorubicin and radiation. These results show that resistance to doxorubicin and radiation is associated with increased STAT1 signaling and can be modulated by fludarabine. The data support further development of therapies combining fludarabine and radiation.
  • Hassan, Saadia, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression signature-based chemcial genomics and activity pattern in a panel of tumour cell lines propose linalyl acetate as a protein kinase/NF-κB inhibitor
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Gene Therapy and Molecular Biology. - 1529-9120. ; 12:B, s. 359-370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The essential oil of Lebanese sage, Salvia libanotica, was reported to have anti-tumour activity; however, the mechanism of action has not been identified yet. In this study, 14- cancer cell lines including drug-sensitive and resistant lung, leukaemia, and colon, as well as primary human tumours of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and primary normal mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to characterize the anti-tumour activity and mechanism of action of linalyl acetate, a component of the Lebanese sage essential oil. Drug activity and gene expression data sets were utilized to identify drugs with similar activity patterns and genes involved in drug sensitivity/resistance. In addition, the Connectivity Map, a gene expression signature-based screening approach, assisted in predicting further the molecular action of linalyl acetate. Small cell lung carcinoma and colorectal cancer cell lines were the most sensitive to the drug and greater tumour selectivity was observed against chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells compared to normal mononuclear cells. Only limited effect of some of the classical mechanisms of multi-drug resistance on the activity of Linalyl acetate was noted which makes it potentially interesting for drug-resistant patients. There was high similarity between the activity-pattern/gene expression profile of linalyl acetate and that of protein kinase/NF-kappa B inhibitors. Validating this, linalyl acetate was found to strongly inhibit Janus kinase, JAK3, and p38 alpha kinases in a cell-free assay as well as the NF-kappa B translocation in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results show that the NF-kappa B inhibitor, linalyl acetate, may represent a new therapeutic compound in the management of inflammation and cancer.
  • Hägerstrand, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of an imatinib-sensitive subset of high-grade human glioma cultures
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - 0950-9232. ; 25:35, s. 4913-4922
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-grade gliomas, including glioblastomas, are malignant brain tumors for which improved treatment is urgently needed. Genetic studies have demonstrated the existence of biologically distinct subsets. Preliminary studies have indicated that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling contributes to the growth of some of these tumors. In this study, human high-grade glioma primary cultures were analysed for sensitivity to treatment with the PDGF receptor inhibitor imatinib/Glivec/Gleevec/STI571. Six out of 15 cultures displayed more than 40% growth inhibition after imatinib treatment, whereas seven cultures showed less than 20% growth inhibition. In the sensitive cultures, apoptosis contributed to growth inhibition. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor status correlated with imatinib sensitivity. Supervised analyses of gene expression profiles and real-time PCR analyses identified expression of the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) as a predictor of imatinib sensitivity. Exogenous addition of CXCL12 to imatinib-insensitive cultures conferred some imatinib sensitivity. Finally, coregulation of CXCL12 and PDGF alpha-receptor was observed in glioblastoma biopsies. We have thus defined the characteristics of a novel imatinib-sensitive subset of glioma cultures, and provided evidence for a functional relationship between imatinib sensitivity and chemokine signaling. These findings will assist in the design and evaluation of clinical trials exploring therapeutic effects of imatinib on malignant brain tumors.
  • Isaksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-validation and bootstrapping are unreliable in small sample classification
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Pattern Recognition Letters. - 0167-8655. ; 29:14, s. 1960-1965
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interest in statistical classification for critical applications such as diagnoses of patient samples based on supervised learning is rapidly growing. To gain acceptance in applications where the subsequent decisions have serious consequences, e.g. choice of cancer therapy, any such decision support system must come with a reliable performance estimate. Tailored for small sample problems, cross-validation (CV) and bootstrapping (BTS) have been the most commonly used methods to determine such estimates in virtually all branches of science for the last 20 years. Here, we address the often overlooked fact that the uncertainty in a point estimate obtained with CV and BTS is unknown and quite large for small sample classification problems encountered in biomedical applications and elsewhere. To avoid this fundamental problem of employing CV and BTS, until improved alternatives have been established, we suggest that the final classification performance always should be reported in the form of a Bayesian confidence interval obtained from a simple holdout test or using some other method that yields conservative measures of the uncertainty.
  • Laryea, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of the cytotoxic activity of the indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptolepine in human tumour cell lines and primary cultures of tumour cells from patients
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Investigational new drugs. - 0167-6997. ; 27:5, s. 402-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The plant derived indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptolepine was investigated for its cytotoxic properties in 12 human tumour cell lines and in primary cultures of tumour cells from patients. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay was used to assess cytotoxicity and DNA micro-array analysis to evaluate gene expression. Cryptolepine mean IC(50) in the cell line panel was 0.9 muM compared with 1.0 and 2.8 muM in haematological and solid tumour malignancies, respectively. Among patient solid tumour samples, those from breast cancer were the most sensitive and essentially as sensitive as haematological malignancies. Cryptolepine activity showed highest correlations to topoisomerase II and microtubule targeting drugs. In the cell lines cryptolepine activity was essentially unaffected by established mechanisms of drug resistance. A number of genes were identified as associated with cryptolepine activity. In conclusion, cryptolepine shows interesting in vitro cytotoxic properties and its further evaluation as an anti-cancer drug seems warranted.
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