SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "Nicaragua ;lar1:(uu);spr:eng"

Sökning: Nicaragua > Uppsala universitet > Engelska

  • Resultat 1-10 av 53
  • [1]23456Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Åsling Monemi, Kajsa, 1960- (författare)
  • The Impact of Violence Against Women on Child Growth, Morbidity and Survival
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis was to explore the impact of physical, sexual and emotional violence against women of reproductive age and the level of controlling behaviour in marriage on child health and survival in two different cultural settings: Bangladesh and Nicaragua. Data were acquired from four quantitative community-based studies. In two studies, a cohort including a prospective two year follow-up of 3164 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh was investigated. A third study was a case-referent study in Nicaragua including mothers of 110 cases of under-five deaths and 203 referents, and in a forth study an other cohort of 1048 rural Bangladeshi women and their 2691 children was followed until 5 years of age. Maternal exposure to any form of violence, including physical, sexual, emotional, and controlling behaviour was independently associated with lower body size at birth, increased risk of stunting and under-weight at 24 months of age, slower growth velocity during the first two years of life and a higher incidence of diarrhoeal episodes and respiratory tract infections. In the Nicaraguan setting, the children of women who experienced any history of physical violence had a two-fold increase in risk of death before the age of 5 years, and those whose mothers experienced both physical and sexual violence had a six-fold increase in risk of death. In Bangladesh, an association between violence against women and under-five mortality was found among daughters of educated mothers who were exposed to severe physical violence or a high level of controlling behaviour in marriage. In all four studies, lifetime violence experience among participating mothers was high (37-69%), and the timing was less relevant than the exposure to violence per se. In conclusion, this investigation revealed that violence against women severely affects child health and survival. The findings are especially relevant in a context of high level of child under-nutrition, morbidity and under-five mortality. Efforts for protecting women from all forms of violence are needed as part of the interventions for improved child health.
2.
  • Pérez, Wilton, 1979- (författare)
  • Millennium Development Goals in Nicaragua
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The world has made important efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015. However, it is still insufficient and inequalities prevail in the poorest settings. We tracked selected MDG, barriers for their achievement, and community actions that help to accelerate the pace of their accomplishment in two Nicaraguan communities (León and Cuatro Santos).In the first two studies we track the progress of MDG4 (reduce child mortality) using the under-five mortality rate. Inequalities in mortality were mainly assessed by means of maternal education, but other social stratifications were performed on rural-urban residence and sub-regional comparisons between both communities. The last two studies describe community interventions in Cuatro Santos and their association with progress toward MDG1 (poverty reduction). Participation in interventions and poverty were visualized geographically in this remote rural community between 2004 and 2009. Other selected MDG targets were also tracked.These communities will possibly meet MDG4 even before 2015. In León, MDG progress has been accompanied by a decline in child mortality. Despite social inequalities with regard to mortality persisting in education and places of residence, these have decreased. However, it is crucial to reduce neonatal mortality if MDG4 is to be achieved. For example, in León the percentage of under-five deaths in the neonatal period has doubled from 1970 to 2005. In the remote rural area of Cuatro Santos, progress has been accelerated and no child mortality differences were observed despite the level of a mother’s education.Cuatro Santos has also progressed in the reduction of poverty and extreme poverty. The participation of the population in such community interventions as microcredit, home gardening, technical training, safe drinking water, and latrines has increased. Microcredit was an intervention that was unequally distributed in this rural area, where participation was lower in poor and extremely poor households than in non-poor households. In those households that transitioned from poor to non-poor status, microcredit, home gardening, and technical training were associated with this transition. Furthermore spatial analysis revealed that clusters of low participation in interventions overlapped with clusters of high poverty households.
3.
  • Espinoza, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Shifts of rotavirus G and P types in Nicaragua - 2001-2003
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. - 0891-3668. ; 25:11, s. 1078-1080
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study reports the diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in León, Nicaragua during three years. There was a shift of G and P genotypes with increment of one specific genotype during the second most important peak of diarrhea occurring in the beginning of every year. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
  •  
4.
  • Ugarte Guevara, William J., 1979- (författare)
  • Averting HIV and AIDS epidemic in Nicaragua
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain an understanding of the dynamics of the HIV epidemic by estimating prevalence and exploring the relationship between HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and HIV status in Nicaragua. Structured questionnaires were administered to adults from a health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua (Papers I–III). In-depth interviews and a survey were conducted among men who have sex with men (MSM, Paper IV). Blood sampling for HIV was carried out among 2,204 men and women (Paper I). Bivariate and multivariate analyses, including adjusted prevalence ratio (Papers I, II, IV), factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, and hierarchical regression analysis (Paper III) were performed. Thematic analysis was used with qualitative data (Paper IV).The prevalence of HIV in the general population was 0.35% (95% CI, 0.17–0.73). Those who have taken a HIV test were more likely to be females, younger, living in an urban setting, have a higher level of education, be married or cohabiting, and have no religious affiliation. HIV-related knowledge was lower among members of the general population than among MSM. Unprotected sex was reported more times with regular partners than with casual partners. Findings suggested that consistency of condom use and emotional attachment (steady relations) were inversely related. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population; they appeared to be negatively associated with HIV-related knowledge, self-perception of HIV risk, HIV testing, and willingness to disclose HIV status in the event of being HIV-positive. Findings demonstrated an increasing tolerance towards same-sex attractions. MSM have a better understanding of HIV transmission than men and women of the general population. Although seven out of ten MSM and six out of ten women were concerned about becoming infected with HIV, inconsistent condom use was common.This study confirmed that Nicaragua has a low prevalence but high risk for HIV infection and transmission. Results underscore that social, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to retard progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on reducing gender inequality and combating HIV/AIDS. Addressing these challenges depends not only on successful behavior change interventions, but requires a culturally gender-appropriate strategy.
5.
  • Svärd, S, et al. (författare)
  • Dominance of Giardia assemblage B in León, Nicaragua.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Tropica. - 0001-706X. ; 106:1, s. 44-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Giardiasis is a major problem in León, Nicaragua, yet despite this no data are available regarding the prevalence of different Giardia genotypes in this area. To address this question, a molecular analysis of Giardia isolates from humans and dogs living in the same area in León, Nicaragua was performed. Giardia isolates from 119 Nicaraguan patients and 8 dogs were successfully genotyped using single and/or nested beta-giardin PCR with subsequent restriction length fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The analyses of human samples yielded 94 (79%) assemblage B isolates and 25 (21%) assemblage A isolates. Only the non-human-associated assemblages C and D were found in the dog samples. Sixteen isolates with assemblage A pattern, 26 isolates with assemblage B pattern and all dog isolates were further characterized by sequencing the nested beta-giardin PCR product and by molecular analyses of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Within the study area the assemblage A isolates were highly genetically homogenous, showing only sub-genotypes A2 (n=3) or A3 (n=13) at the beta-giardin locus and AII only at the gdh locus while assemblage B showed a high genetic polymorphism at both loci. Seven different sub-genotypes were identified within 13 of the sequenced assemblage B beta-giardin isolates. The remaining 13 sequenced assemblage B-isolates appeared to contain several different variants of the beta-giardin gene since the chromatograms displayed one to seven double peaks. The gdh sequences showed an even higher polymorphism since only 2 of 26 assemblage B isolates were without double peaks. Two mixed infections between assemblage A and B were found when the gdh gene was analyzed. Polymorphisms were also observed in the dog-associated assemblages C and D, but to a lesser extent than in assemblage B.
  •  
6.
  • Ugarte, William J., 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua : Results from a community-based study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: AIDS Education and Prevention. - 0899-9546. ; 25:2, s. 164-178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach’s alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest Community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV.
  •  
7.
  •  
8.
  • Ugarte, William J., et al. (författare)
  • Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS in Nicaragua : A community-level perspective
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare. - 1877-5756. ; 4:1, s. 37-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Nicaragua's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men.Nevertheless, the increasing number of HIV cases among heterosexuals, high levels of poverty andmigration rates, and incomplete epidemiological data suggest the need to improve the understanding of the epidemic.Objective:To examine the prevalence of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual rsik-taking behaviors, and their predictors among the adult population.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 520 participants ages 15 to 49 from an ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Nicaragua. Bivariate analysis and adjusted prevalence ratios were use to examine factors associated with HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior.Results: Contributing factors for risk-taking behaviors included cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional elements. Insufficient knowledge affecting the accurate assessment of HIV risk were low educational level, poverty, and rural origin, especially among females. Recognizing risk was not sufficient to promote safer sex: 90% of the females and 70% of the males who reported being sexually active in the past year did not use condoms during their last sexual encounter. Inconsistent condom use among men was associated with older age, long-term relationships, and lack of awareness about acquiring HIV infection.Conclusions:Interventions to reduce social-structural contextual factors in Nicaragua are needed so that individuals may adopt and maintain HIV risk reduction strategies. Increased gender-specific HIV education and skills-building programs need to be implemented. Sensitive mass media messages may also increase the knowledge of HIV and AIDS, and serve to encourage protective attitudes and behaviors.
  •  
9.
  •  
10.
  • Ugarte Guevara, William J., et al. (författare)
  • Sexuality and Risk Behavior among Men Who have Sex with Men in León, Nicaragua : A Mixed Methods Approach
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine. - 1743-6095. ; 9:6, s. 1634-1648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction.HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is 38 times higher than among the general population in Nicaragua. There are little data about the sexuality and sexual behaviors of MSM. It is essential to gain a better understanding of this understudied population.Aims.The nature of sexual relationships among MSM, their reasons for engaging in risky sexual behaviors, and the sociocultural context in Leon, Nicaragua, were investigated through in-depth interviews. Our findings resulted in a structured overview of sociodemographic characteristics and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors.Methods.Fifteen participants recruited by purposive sampling completed an in-depth interview that was then thematically analyzed. An additional 104 participants were surveyed by means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Main Outcome Measures.The in-depth interview guide and the survey covered topics related to sociodemographics, childhood, social and sexual relationships, knowledge and attitudes toward HIV and AIDS, identity, and networks.Results.The resulting ecological model explored sexuality and behaviors in four categories. It showed that despite a homophobic and heterosexist society, there is an increasing gay community and greater social acceptance of homosexuality. Nevertheless, interpersonal and intrapersonal factors continue to negatively influence MSM behavior. Quantitative findings demonstrate a satisfactory understanding of HIV transmission among this population, 75% of whom reported concerns of becoming infected with HIV in the future. Approximately one-half claimed that they always used condoms when having sex with men, but only one-third of the time with women, indicating inconsistent condom use. Negative attitudes toward HIV/AIDS were seldom heard.Conclusions.This study is the first mixed methods approach in a Nicaraguan context that shows the interrelations among sex, sexuality, and identity at various levels of MSM life, and how they influence the sexual risk behaviors of individuals. Engaging in unprotected sex and postponing HIV testing are seen as cognitive dissonances.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 53
  • [1]23456Nästa
Åtkomst
fritt online (9)
Typ av publikation
tidskriftsartikel (42)
doktorsavhandling (7)
bokkapitel (2)
proceedings (redaktörskap) (1)
konferensbidrag (1)
Typ av innehåll
refereegranskat (34)
övrigt vetenskapligt (19)
Författare/redaktör
Pena, Rodolfo (6)
Persson, Lars-Åke, (5)
Persson, Lars-Åke, 1 ... (5)
Valladares, Eliette (5)
Vammen, K (4)
Zelaya Blandón, Elme ... (4)
visa fler...
Erikson, R, (4)
Lundberg, Ingvar, (3)
Högberg, Ulf, (3)
Källestål, Carina (3)
Källestål, Carina, 1 ... (3)
Zelaya, E. (3)
Högberg, Ulf, 1949-, (3)
Contreras, Mariela, (3)
Ekström, Eva-Charlot ... (3)
Pérez, Wilton, 1979- ... (3)
Essén, Birgitta, 196 ... (2)
Ahlgren, Ingemar, (2)
Ahlgren, I, (2)
Mejia, M. (2)
Montenegro-Guillén, ... (2)
Zelaya, A (2)
Peña, R (2)
Ståhl, Bertil, 1957- ... (2)
Aragón, Aurora (2)
Paniagua, Margarita (2)
Espinoza, Felix (2)
Svärd, S. (2)
Wesseling, Catharina ... (2)
Contreras, Mariela, ... (2)
Ekström, Eva-Charlot ... (2)
Téllez, A. (2)
Gonzalez, Marvin (2)
Pérez, Wilton, (2)
Salazar, Mariano, (2)
Valladares Cardoza, ... (2)
Herrmann, Björn, (1)
Zetterberg, Pär, (1)
Ahlgren, G (1)
Moreno, L (1)
Essén, Birgitta (1)
Hjern, Anders, (1)
Lindh, Christian (1)
Ahlgren, Gunnel, (1)
Hernández, S (1)
Eriksson, R, (1)
Pacheco, L (1)
Rivas, K (1)
Svensson, Lennart, (1)
Ala-Poikela, M. (1)
visa färre...
Lärosäte
Umeå universitet (5)
Karolinska Institutet (4)
Lunds universitet (2)
Linköpings universitet (1)
Luleå tekniska universitet (1)
visa fler...
Stockholms universitet (1)
visa färre...
Språk

År

 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy