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  • Pérez, Wilton, et al. (författare)
  • Community development actions to achieve the Millennium Development Goals : An analysis based on a surveillance site in Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BackgroundAccording to preliminary data, the remote rural area of Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua has shown improvements in almost all Millennium Development Goals (MDG), while a set of interventions have been running in the area. This study describes the progress toward a set of MDG, as well as the geographical disparities encountered in reaching MDG1.MethodsWe investigated selected MDG prospectively and retrospectively in 2004 and 2009, and prepared a descriptive analysis of MDG and community interventions by proportions, rates, and ratios.  In order to determine any geographical disparities in progress toward MDG1 among the households receiving interventions, we used a spatial scan test (SaTScan®) to identify unique non-random spatial clusters of poverty and interventions, and a retrospective model to identify multiple clusters in a defined geographic area. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were also performed to examine the participation of single interventions on the poverty clusters that were identified by the spatial cluster analysis technique.ResultsDescriptive analysis indicated that poverty and under-five mortality declined in Cuatro Santos. Education showed no wide inequality by gender. Access to drinking water and sanitation has risen, but is not universal. Spatial analyses identified a sizeable cluster of poor households located in the northeast part of Cuatro Santos with a high probability of receiving one or more intervention. However, none reached this area. More detailed analyses of the relations between the single interventions and the poverty clusters showed that almost all interventions were positively related to the low poverty clusters (OR > 1), and negatively connected to the high-poverty clusters (OR > 1).ConclusionsThe Cuatro Santos area of Nicaragua has reached several millennium targets, and scaling up of community actions has accelerated the trend towards fulfilling MDG without increasing inequality. However, a geographical analysis reveals that areas of high poverty barely reached by interventions remain. Therefore, continuous surveillance is important to prioritize segments of the population with more social needs.
  • Pérez, Wilton, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing progress toward the child mortality Millennium Development Goal in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2008
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - 1471-2431 .- 1471-2431. ; 14, s. 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. Methods: The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (Leon) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Results: Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban Leon showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural Leon (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural Leon and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. Conclusions: All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings.
  • Peña, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Nicaraguan health and demographic surveillance site, HDSS-León : A platform for public health research
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 36:3, s. 318-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To describe the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Leon, Nicaragua and to present results from the 2002-2003 baseline. Design and methods: A 22% sample of the total population in Leon, both urban and rural, was selected in 1993. This sample was updated in 2002 and will be followed up on a biannual basis with regard to births, deaths, in-migration, and out-migration. A group of 18 female fieldworkers perform 10 household interviews per day, 20 days per month. They use a map that is produced by a Geographical Information System. It shows all the households, and is the main means of the interviewers finding the households. An extensive data quality control system is used. Results: In total, 54,647 persons lived in the area of the surveillance system, and they resided in 10,994 households. The mean age was 26 years;, the sex ratio was 0.93. The infant and neonatal mortality rates were 25.4 and 20.5 per 1,000 live births, respectively. In total, 2,034 people out-migrated from the study area and 3,377 in-migrated. Of the households, 53% were classified as non-poor, 41% as poor, and 6% as extremely poor. Six per cent of the population did not have a toilet or a latrine, and only 16% in the rural area had indoor running water. The surveillance system revealed that 10% were illiterate. Conclusions: The HDSS in Leon has shown that it can serve as a platform for further intervention studies as well as for research training.
  • Perez, Wilton, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Progress towards millennium development goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua Findings from a health and demographic surveillance site
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health. - 1475-9276 .- 1475-9276. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it.METHODS:Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty.RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area.CONCLUSIONS:Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one- third.
  • Becker-Dreps, Sylvia, et al. (författare)
  • Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. - 0002-9637 .- 1476-1645. ; 89:2, s. 246-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Leon, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was fit to compare incidence rates in the pre-vaccine and vaccine periods. The pre-vaccine cohort (N = 726) experienced 36 episodes per 100 child-years, and the vaccine cohort (N = 826) experienced 25 episodes per 100 child-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40, 0.91) during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, indicating a lower incidence of watery diarrhea in the community during the vaccine period.
  • Zelaya Blandon, Elmer, et al. (författare)
  • Breaking the cycles of poverty : Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990-2014
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Methods: Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. Results: A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. Conclusions: The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom- up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need for multi-dimensional local interventions to break the cycles of poverty and gain better health and welfare.
  • Pena, R., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating a peer intervention strategy for the promotion of sexual health-related knowledge and skills in 10- to 14-year-old girls. Findings from the "Entre Amigas" project in Nicaragua
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Health Promotion. - 0890-1171 .- 2168-6602. ; 22:4, s. 275-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. Report effects on knowledge of sexual health and gender from an intervention using peer methodology in Nicaragua. Design. A prepost nonequivalent control group design. Setting. Ciudad Sandino, Managua, Nicaragua. Subjects. A total of 599 girls were surveyed, 60% nonintervened and 40% intervened. Intervention. Peer methodology consisted of (1) meetings in which. girls talked and worked with other girls, (2) mothers taking an active role in the peer groups, and/or (3) girls watching the soap opera "Sexto Sentido." Measures. Indices measuring changes in sexual knowledge and gender vision. Results. Girls participating in the peer groups were twice us likely to have satisfactory sexual health-related self-esteem as those who did not participate. Eleven percent of the girls achieved satisfactory self-esteem as a result of the (peer groups X mothers) interaction and 15% due to the (peer groups X mothers X "Sexto Sentido') interaction. Girls participating in the peer groups were three times as likely to have satisfactory gender visions; if exposed to all three components, they were almost four times as likely to develop satisfactory gender visions. Conclusions. Peer methodology, participation of a female family member, and an educational soap opera seem beneficial in promoting sexual health-related knowledge and gender vision in young girls.
  • Pérez, Wilton, et al. (författare)
  • Tracking progress towards equitable child survival in a Nicaraguan community : neonatal mortality challenges to meet the MDG 4
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 11, s. 455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Nicaragua has made progress in the reduction of the under-five mortality since 1980s. Data for the national trends indicate that this poor Central American country is on track to reach the Millennium Development Goal-4 by 2015. Despite this progress, neonatal mortality has not showed same progress. The aim of this study is to analyse trends and social differentials in neonatal and under-five mortality in a Nicaraguan community from 1970 to 2005.Methods:Two linked community-based reproductive surveys in 1993 and 2002 followed by a health and demographic surveillance system providing information on all births and child deaths in urban and rural areas of Leon municipality, Nicaragua. A total of 49 972 live births were registered.Results:A rapid reduction in under-five mortality was observed during the late 1970s (from 103 deaths/1000 live births) and the 1980s, followed by a gradual decline to the level of 23 deaths/1000 live births in 2005. This community is on track for the Millennium Development Goal 4 for improved child survival. However, neonatal mortality increased lately in spite of a good coverage of skilled assistance at delivery. After some years in the 1990s with a very small gap in neonatal survival between children of mothers of different educational levels this divide is increasing.Conclusions:After the reduction of high under-five mortality that coincided with improved equity in survival in this Nicaraguan community, the current challenge is the neonatal mortality where questions of an equitable perinatal care of good quality must be addressed.
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