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Sökning: Nicaragua > Lundberg Ingvar

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  • Corriols, Marianela, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of acute pesticide poisonings in Nicaragua : a public health concern
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711. ; 66:3, s. 205-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cumulative incidence rate of acute pesticide poisoning in the year 2000 among Nicaraguan subjects over 15 years of age. METHODS: Data on pesticide exposure and health effects were assessed in a nationally representative survey. Based on self-reported cases, we estimated the 1-year incidence rate and the number of expected cases of acute pesticide poisonings in Nicaragua. RESULTS: Among the 3169 survey respondents, we identified 72 persons who self-reported one episode of acute pesticide poisoning in 2000. Of these, 65 cases (90%) were related to occupational exposure, five (7%) to domestic exposure and two (3%) to intentional exposure. The cumulative incidence rate/100 individuals of pesticide poisonings in Nicaragua in 2000 was 2.3 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.8). This corresponds to 66 113 cases (95% CI 51 017 to 81 210). The highest rate was found among males in rural areas, particularly among farmers and agricultural workers. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an extremely high risk of acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua. Considering this, comprehensive measures should be implemented to reduce adverse health effects.
  • Torres, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased Kidney Function of Unknown Cause in Nicaragua: A Community-Based Survey
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - Elsevier Inc. - 0272-6386. ; 55:3, s. 485-496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: End-stage kidney disease overwhelms health services in Central America. We determined prevalences of decreased kidney function in distinct populations in the most affected region of Nicaragua. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting & Participants: Total populations aged 20-60 years of 5 villages in Northwest Nicaragua: mining/subsistence farming (elevation, 100-300 m above sea level), banana/sugarcane (100-300 m), fishing (0-100 m), services (0-100 m), and coffee (200-675 m); 479 men and 617 women (83% response). Predictor or Factor: Village; participant sex, age, and occupation; conventional chronic kidney disease risk factors. Outcomes: Serum creatinine (SCr) values greater than laboratory reference range for sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), proteinuria stratified in the low (dipstick protein excretion, 30-300 mg/dL) and high (>300 mg/dL) range. Results: Prevalences of abnormal SCr levels: 18% (of all men) and 5% (of all women); in the mining/subsistence farming village, 26% and 7%; banana/sugarcane, 22% and 6%; fishing, 13% and 4%; services, 0% and 1%; and coffee, 7% and 0%. Prevalences of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2: 14% (of all men) and 3% (of all women); in the listed villages, 19% and 5%, 17% and 4%, 10% and 2%, 0% and 0%, and 7% and 0%, respectively. Proteinuria, predominantly in the low range, affected 14% and 11% of all men and women without marked differences between villages. By occupation, abnormal SCr levels occurred in 31% and 24% of male and female agricultural workers at 100-300 m above sea level, but not at higher altitudes, and also was high in male artisans (43%), construction workers (15%), and miners (14%). In logistic regression models, for the banana/sugarcane and mining/subsistence farming villages, high blood pressure and age were significant predictors of abnormal SCr levels in men, and for mining/subsistence farming, age in women. Limitations: Causality is not addressed. Conclusions: In some Nicaraguan villages and population segments, men in particular show a high prevalence of decreased kidney function of unknown origin, possibly environmental or occupational. Am J Kidney Dis 55: 485-496. (C) 2010 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
  • Rodriguez, Teresa, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Occupational and environmental medicine. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1351-0711. ; 69:2, s. 119-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide residues of TCPY, 3-PBA and 2,4-D were analysed in children's urine as indicators for current exposures. Results Life-time indices were highest for the organophosphates chlorpyrifos (median 114 h (min 2; max 1584), 19.2 kg ai (min 0.37; max 548)) and methamidophos (84 h (6; 1964), 12.2 kg ai (0.30; 780)). The P50 values of children's urinary residues were 3.7 mu g/g creatinine for TCPY, 2.8 for 3-PBA and 0.9 for 2,4-D; TCPY values are comparable with those in other countries, but 3-PBA and 2,4-D are considerably higher. The maximum levels for all three pesticides are the highest reported for children. Residues increased on days after application, but most high residue levels were unrelated to parental pesticide applications. Conclusion Urinary pesticide residues reveal high environmental exposure among children in rural Nicaragua. The quantitative parental pesticide use indices as proxies for children's exposures during different periods may be useful for the evaluation of developmental health effects.
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