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Sökning: Nicaragua > Lundberg Ingvar

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1.
  • Corriols, Marianela, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of acute pesticide poisonings in Nicaragua : a public health concern
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711. ; 66:3, s. 205-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cumulative incidence rate of acute pesticide poisoning in the year 2000 among Nicaraguan subjects over 15 years of age. METHODS: Data on pesticide exposure and health effects were assessed in a nationally representative survey. Based on self-reported cases, we estimated the 1-year incidence rate and the number of expected cases of acute pesticide poisonings in Nicaragua. RESULTS: Among the 3169 survey respondents, we identified 72 persons who self-reported one episode of acute pesticide poisoning in 2000. Of these, 65 cases (90%) were related to occupational exposure, five (7%) to domestic exposure and two (3%) to intentional exposure. The cumulative incidence rate/100 individuals of pesticide poisonings in Nicaragua in 2000 was 2.3 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.8). This corresponds to 66 113 cases (95% CI 51 017 to 81 210). The highest rate was found among males in rural areas, particularly among farmers and agricultural workers. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an extremely high risk of acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua. Considering this, comprehensive measures should be implemented to reduce adverse health effects.
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2.
  • Torres, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased Kidney Function of Unknown Cause in Nicaragua : A Community-Based Survey
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Kidney Diseases. - 0272-6386. ; 55:3, s. 485-496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: End-stage kidney disease overwhelms health services in Central America. We determined prevalences of decreased kidney function in distinct populations in the most affected region of Nicaragua. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting & Participants: Total populations aged 20-60 years of 5 villages in Northwest Nicaragua: mining/subsistence farming (elevation, 100-300 m above sea level), banana/sugarcane (100-300 m), fishing (0-100 m), services (0-100 m), and coffee (200-675 m); 479 men and 617 women (83% response). Predictor or Factor: Village; participant sex, age, and occupation; conventional chronic kidney disease risk factors. Outcomes: Serum creatinine (SCr) values greater than laboratory reference range for sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), proteinuria stratified in the low (dipstick protein excretion, 30-300 mg/dL) and high (>300 mg/dL) range. Results: Prevalences of abnormal SCr levels: 18% (of all men) and 5% (of all women); in the mining/subsistence farming village, 26% and 7%; banana/sugarcane, 22% and 6%; fishing, 13% and 4%; services, 0% and 1%; and coffee, 7% and 0%. Prevalences of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2: 14% (of all men) and 3% (of all women); in the listed villages, 19% and 5%, 17% and 4%, 10% and 2%, 0% and 0%, and 7% and 0%, respectively. Proteinuria, predominantly in the low range, affected 14% and 11% of all men and women without marked differences between villages. By occupation, abnormal SCr levels occurred in 31% and 24% of male and female agricultural workers at 100-300 m above sea level, but not at higher altitudes, and also was high in male artisans (43%), construction workers (15%), and miners (14%). In logistic regression models, for the banana/sugarcane and mining/subsistence farming villages, high blood pressure and age were significant predictors of abnormal SCr levels in men, and for mining/subsistence farming, age in women. Limitations: Causality is not addressed. Conclusions: In some Nicaraguan villages and population segments, men in particular show a high prevalence of decreased kidney function of unknown origin, possibly environmental or occupational.
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3.
  • Rodriguez, Teresa, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Pyrethroids exposure and neurobehavioral performance in school age children in rural Nicaragua
  • nnnn
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: This cross-sectional study explored whether pre or postnatal pyrethroid exposure impaired cognitive performance and behavior in school-aged children from a rural area in Nicaragua.Methods: Pyrethroid exposure was assessed in 110 children age 7-9, attending grade 1-3, with cumulative parental pyrethroid use indices of hours of spraying, during pregnancy, the first year of life, and older than age one. Cypermethrin accounted for most of the pyrethroid use. Cognitive performance of the children was evaluated with 12 sub-tests and total IQ of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV), grouped into indices for perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed. Behavior at school was measured with the oppositional, cognitive problem/inattention, hyperactivity and ADHD index subscales of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale-Revised:Short form (CTRS-R:S). One year later, the pyrethroid metabolite 3-PBA was measured in 211 urine samples from 74 children (median 3.3 µg/g creatinine, max. 547) and the effect of recent exposure on cognitive and behavior was assessed with a shortened battery. Results:Pyrethroid exposure indices during the first year of life significantly decreased performance of perceptual reasoning in children aged 7-9. For each 10-fold increasein hours of pyrethroid application , children’s performance on the Perceptual Reasoning Index decreased on average with 1.1 point.  Postnatal exposures, during the first year and after age 1, associated with hyperactivity and attention problem. Urinary 3-PBA levels were negatively associated with a number of cognitive functions and, noteworthy, with increased scores for ADHD in girls but not in boys.Conclusion:Pyrethroid exposure in the first year of life was associated with decreased perceptual reasoning in rural children and with hyperactivity and ADHD predominantly in girls. 
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4.
  • Rodriguez, Teresa, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Pyrethroids exposure and neurobehavioral performance in school age children in rural Nicaragua
  • nnnn
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Objective: This cross-sectional study explored whether pre or postnatal pyrethroid exposure impaired cognitive performance and behavior in school-aged children from a rural area in Nicaragua.Methods: Pyrethroid exposure was assessed in 110 children age 7-9, attending grade 1-3, with cumulative parental pyrethroid use indices of hours of spraying, during pregnancy, the first year of life, and older than age one. Cypermethrin accounted for most of the pyrethroid use. Cognitive performance of the children was evaluated with 12 sub-tests and total IQ of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV), grouped into indices for perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed. Behavior at school was measured with the oppositional, cognitive problem/inattention, hyperactivity and ADHD index subscales of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale-Revised:Short form (CTRS-R:S). One year later, the pyrethroid metabolite 3-PBA was measured in 211 urine samples from 74 children (median 3.3 µg/g creatinine, max. 547) and the effect of recent exposure on cognitive and behavior was assessed with a shortened battery. Results:Pyrethroid exposure indices during the first year of life significantly decreased performance of perceptual reasoning in children aged 7-9. For each 10-fold increasein hours of pyrethroid application , children’s performance on the Perceptual Reasoning Index decreased on average with 1.1 point.  Postnatal exposures, during the first year and after age 1, associated with hyperactivity and attention problem. Urinary 3-PBA levels were negatively associated with a number of cognitive functions and, noteworthy, with increased scores for ADHD in girls but not in boys.Conclusion:Pyrethroid exposure in the first year of life was associated with decreased perceptual reasoning in rural children and with hyperactivity and ADHD predominantly in girls.
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5.
  • Rodriguez, Teresa, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Occupational and environmental medicine. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1351-0711. ; 69:2, s. 119-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide residues of TCPY, 3-PBA and 2,4-D were analysed in children's urine as indicators for current exposures. Results Life-time indices were highest for the organophosphates chlorpyrifos (median 114 h (min 2; max 1584), 19.2 kg ai (min 0.37; max 548)) and methamidophos (84 h (6; 1964), 12.2 kg ai (0.30; 780)). The P50 values of children's urinary residues were 3.7 mu g/g creatinine for TCPY, 2.8 for 3-PBA and 0.9 for 2,4-D; TCPY values are comparable with those in other countries, but 3-PBA and 2,4-D are considerably higher. The maximum levels for all three pesticides are the highest reported for children. Residues increased on days after application, but most high residue levels were unrelated to parental pesticide applications. Conclusion Urinary pesticide residues reveal high environmental exposure among children in rural Nicaragua. The quantitative parental pesticide use indices as proxies for children's exposures during different periods may be useful for the evaluation of developmental health effects.
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6.
  • Rodriguez, Teresa, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive deficits in organophosphate exposed children of Nicaraguan subsistence farmers
  • nnnn
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: This study examined cognitive and behavioral performance among school-age children in Nicaragua in relation with long-term and recent organophosphate exposures.Methods: Long-term organophosphate was assessed in 110 children aged 7-9 through a parental use index of kg of organophosphate during de pregnancy, first year of life and from 1 year old to the present. Recent exposure was determined in a subset of 74 children by urinary 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY) levels. Cognitive function was evaluated with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV), total IQ and subtests grouped into indices for perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed. Behavior at school was measured with the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale-Revised:Short (CTRS-R:S). Multivariate linear regression models assessed adjusted associations.Results: For each 10-fold increase in prenatal indices for total OP use, children’s performance on working memory significantly decreased with 3.5 points, and similarly for chlorpyrifos and methamidophos. Prenatal methamidophos use was, in addition, significantly associated with poorer verbal comprehension and decrease in total IQ, a 10-fold use increase decreasing scores with 3.8 and 3.3 points respectively. Urinary TCPY (mg/g of creatinine) also affected, not significantly, working memory with a 3.2 point decrease for each 10-fold increase. This study did not find associations between postnatal organophosphate use indices and cognitive performance, or pre or postnatal use indices with behavior. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to organophosphates decreased the cognitive abilities in Nicaraguan children, particularly in working memory. Methamidophos was also associated with poor verbal comprehension and total IQ.
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