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Sökning: Nicaragua > Persson Lars Åke

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1.
  • Pérez, Wilton, et al. (författare)
  • Community development actions to achieve the Millennium Development Goals : An analysis based on a surveillance site in Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BackgroundAccording to preliminary data, the remote rural area of Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua has shown improvements in almost all Millennium Development Goals (MDG), while a set of interventions have been running in the area. This study describes the progress toward a set of MDG, as well as the geographical disparities encountered in reaching MDG1.MethodsWe investigated selected MDG prospectively and retrospectively in 2004 and 2009, and prepared a descriptive analysis of MDG and community interventions by proportions, rates, and ratios.  In order to determine any geographical disparities in progress toward MDG1 among the households receiving interventions, we used a spatial scan test (SaTScan®) to identify unique non-random spatial clusters of poverty and interventions, and a retrospective model to identify multiple clusters in a defined geographic area. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were also performed to examine the participation of single interventions on the poverty clusters that were identified by the spatial cluster analysis technique.ResultsDescriptive analysis indicated that poverty and under-five mortality declined in Cuatro Santos. Education showed no wide inequality by gender. Access to drinking water and sanitation has risen, but is not universal. Spatial analyses identified a sizeable cluster of poor households located in the northeast part of Cuatro Santos with a high probability of receiving one or more intervention. However, none reached this area. More detailed analyses of the relations between the single interventions and the poverty clusters showed that almost all interventions were positively related to the low poverty clusters (OR > 1), and negatively connected to the high-poverty clusters (OR > 1).ConclusionsThe Cuatro Santos area of Nicaragua has reached several millennium targets, and scaling up of community actions has accelerated the trend towards fulfilling MDG without increasing inequality. However, a geographical analysis reveals that areas of high poverty barely reached by interventions remain. Therefore, continuous surveillance is important to prioritize segments of the population with more social needs.
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  • Pérez, Wilton, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing progress toward the child mortality Millennium Development Goal in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2008
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - 1471-2431. ; 14, s. 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. Methods: The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (Leon) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Results: Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban Leon showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural Leon (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural Leon and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. Conclusions: All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings.
4.
  • Peña, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Nicaraguan health and demographic surveillance site, HDSS-León : A platform for public health research
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 36:3, s. 318-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To describe the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Leon, Nicaragua and to present results from the 2002-2003 baseline. Design and methods: A 22% sample of the total population in Leon, both urban and rural, was selected in 1993. This sample was updated in 2002 and will be followed up on a biannual basis with regard to births, deaths, in-migration, and out-migration. A group of 18 female fieldworkers perform 10 household interviews per day, 20 days per month. They use a map that is produced by a Geographical Information System. It shows all the households, and is the main means of the interviewers finding the households. An extensive data quality control system is used. Results: In total, 54,647 persons lived in the area of the surveillance system, and they resided in 10,994 households. The mean age was 26 years;, the sex ratio was 0.93. The infant and neonatal mortality rates were 25.4 and 20.5 per 1,000 live births, respectively. In total, 2,034 people out-migrated from the study area and 3,377 in-migrated. Of the households, 53% were classified as non-poor, 41% as poor, and 6% as extremely poor. Six per cent of the population did not have a toilet or a latrine, and only 16% in the rural area had indoor running water. The surveillance system revealed that 10% were illiterate. Conclusions: The HDSS in Leon has shown that it can serve as a platform for further intervention studies as well as for research training.
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  • Salazar, Mariano, et al. (författare)
  • Intimate partner violence and early child growth
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2431. ; 12, s. 82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study analyses whether a mother's exposure to different forms of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy was associated with the index child linear growth, and whether these associations were modified by the gender of the child.Methods: A pregnancy cohort of 478 women in Leon, Nicaragua, resulted in 461 live births. From this group, 81% (375/461) children were available for anthropometric follow-up at 40 to 46 months. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the association between IPV and height-for-age Z-scores, adjusting for confounding factors.Results: Sixty-three percent (236/375) of the mothers had been exposed to some form of IPV during pregnancy (emotional, physical, sexual or controlling behavior). After adjustment for confounding factors, maternal exposure to any IPV during pregnancy was associated with 0.24 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p = 0.02). A separate analysis of each IPV type showed that emotional, physical or sexual IPV during pregnancy were not significantly associated with lower mean height-for-age Z-scores, whereas ever exposure to controlling behavior by the father of the child was related to 0.29 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p < 0.01) When stratified by gender, these associations remained significant only for young girls.Conclusions: This study has contributed to the growing amount of evidence pointing to the pervasive effect of different forms of IPV on child health. Our study highlights the relevance of maternal autonomy for linear child growth, especially for young girls in the Nicaraguan context.
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  • Perez, Wilton, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Progress towards millennium development goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health. - 1475-9276. ; 11:1, s. 43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it.METHODS:Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty.RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area.CONCLUSIONS:Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one- third.
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  • Valaldares, Eliette, et al. (författare)
  • Physical partner abuse during pregnancy: a risk factor for low birth weight in Nicaragua
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Obstetrics and Gynecology. - 0029-7844. ; 100:4, s. 700-705
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether being physically abused during pregnancy increases the risk of a low birth weight (LBW) infant. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in León, Nicaragua. Cases consisted of 101 newborns with a birth weight under 2500 g, and for each case two controls with a birth weight over 2500 g were selected randomly from infants born the same day. Anthropometry of newborns was done immediately after birth, and background information and data on experiences of violence and potential confounders were obtained through private interviews with mothers. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable proportion were calculated for exposure to partner abuse in relation to LBW. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to control for potential confounding. RESULTS: Seventy-five percent of LBW newborns (cases) were small for gestational age and 40% were preterm. Twenty-two percent of the mothers of LBW infants had experienced physical abuse during pregnancy by their intimate partners compared with 5% of controls. Low birth weight was associated with physical partner abuse even after adjustment for age, parity, smoking, and socioeconomic status (OR 3.9; 95% confidence interval 1.7, 9.3). Given a causal interpretation of the association, about 16% of the LBW in the infant population could be attributed to physical abuse by a partner in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for LBW.
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