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1.
  • Bucardo, Filemon, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic susceptibility to symptomatic norovirus infection in Nicaragua.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical virology. - 1096-9071. ; 81:4, s. 728
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Host genetic resistance to Norovirus (NoV) has been observed in challenge and outbreak studies in populations from Europe, Asia, and USA. In this study, we have investigated if histo-blood group antigens can predict susceptibility to diarrhea caused by NoV in Nicaragua, Central America, and if this can be reflected in antibody-prevalence and titer to NoV among individuals with different histo-blood group antigen phenotypes. Investigation of 28 individuals infected with NoV and 131 population controls revealed 6% of non-secretors in the population and nil non-secretors among patients infected with NoV, suggesting that non-secretors may be protected against NoV disease in Nicaragua. Surprisingly, 25% of the population was Lewis negative (Le(a-b-)). NoV infections with genogroup I (GI) and GII occurred irrespective of Lewis genotype, but none of the Lewis a positive (Le(a + b-)) were infected. The globally dominating GII.4 virus infected individuals of all blood groups except AB (n = 5), while the GI viruses (n = 4) infected only blood type O individuals. Furthermore, O blood types were susceptible to infections with GI.4, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and GII.18-Nica viruses, suggesting that secretors with blood type O are susceptible (OR = 1.52) and non-secretors resistant. The overall antibody-prevalence to NoV GII.3 VLP was 62% with the highest prevalence among blood type B carriers (70%) followed by A (68%) and O (62%). All four investigated individuals carrying blood type AB were antibody-negative. Among secretors, 63% were antibody-positive compared to 33% among non-secretors (P = 0.151). This study extends previous knowledge about the histo-blood group antigens role in NoV disease in a population with different genetic background than North American and European.
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2.
  • Dahlblom, Kjerstin, 1950- (författare)
  • Home alone
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sibling caretaking, although common across time and cultures, has not been well researched from the carer’s point of view. In Nicaragua, ranked as one of the poorest countries in the Americas, sibling caretaking is common. The country’s historical background and its state of chronic poverty, widespread unemployment, loose family structures, and migration and mobility makes of the old practise of shared management child care a necessity. Households headed by sing¬le mothers constitute a particular Nica¬raguan charact¬eristic. Many children are expected to help in their own families and care for their siblings and other children living in their households. In its broadest sense sibling caretaking is a public health concern, and we conducted this study to widen the understanding of the phenomenon as it is represented in a setting undergoing a rapid social transition.The main objectives were to identify, describe and analyse the life situation of sibling caretakers in poor areas in León, Nicaragua, with focus on how they perceived it themselves. A combined qualitative and quantitative methodological design was used, mainly applying an ethnographic approach. A further ambition was to explore involvement of children in a participatory research process in accordance with the ‘Convention on the Rights of the Child’.The overall emotion expressed among the caretakers was pride, even if their situation often was characterized by stress and coping problems. They perceived their work as important for their families and they appreciated to fend for their siblings. Household work and nurturing of siblings were shaping the future lives of the caretakers and constituted part of their socialization.Even if many of these children achieve essential life skills as caretakers, they are at risk of falling behind as they grow older. Their long-term personal development is likely to be hampered by the obligations they have as caretakers. The carers' awareness of missing out on education was the most problematic issue for them.From a societal point of view, caretaking has negative consequences. The individual child is marginalised with limited access to basic education, contributing to overall low educational levels in Nicaragua.While the structuring conditions leading to sibling caretaking may be difficult to change, awareness of how these can affect children might make way for improvements in terms of access to school education and support from the society. The knowledge gained from this study should be further utilised to plan for interventions that take children’s perspectives into consideration.
3.
  • Åsling Monemi, Kajsa, 1960- (författare)
  • The Impact of Violence Against Women on Child Growth, Morbidity and Survival
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis was to explore the impact of physical, sexual and emotional violence against women of reproductive age and the level of controlling behaviour in marriage on child health and survival in two different cultural settings: Bangladesh and Nicaragua. Data were acquired from four quantitative community-based studies. In two studies, a cohort including a prospective two year follow-up of 3164 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh was investigated. A third study was a case-referent study in Nicaragua including mothers of 110 cases of under-five deaths and 203 referents, and in a forth study an other cohort of 1048 rural Bangladeshi women and their 2691 children was followed until 5 years of age. Maternal exposure to any form of violence, including physical, sexual, emotional, and controlling behaviour was independently associated with lower body size at birth, increased risk of stunting and under-weight at 24 months of age, slower growth velocity during the first two years of life and a higher incidence of diarrhoeal episodes and respiratory tract infections. In the Nicaraguan setting, the children of women who experienced any history of physical violence had a two-fold increase in risk of death before the age of 5 years, and those whose mothers experienced both physical and sexual violence had a six-fold increase in risk of death. In Bangladesh, an association between violence against women and under-five mortality was found among daughters of educated mothers who were exposed to severe physical violence or a high level of controlling behaviour in marriage. In all four studies, lifetime violence experience among participating mothers was high (37-69%), and the timing was less relevant than the exposure to violence per se. In conclusion, this investigation revealed that violence against women severely affects child health and survival. The findings are especially relevant in a context of high level of child under-nutrition, morbidity and under-five mortality. Efforts for protecting women from all forms of violence are needed as part of the interventions for improved child health.
4.
  • Pérez, Wilton, 1979- (författare)
  • Millennium Development Goals in Nicaragua
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The world has made important efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015. However, it is still insufficient and inequalities prevail in the poorest settings. We tracked selected MDG, barriers for their achievement, and community actions that help to accelerate the pace of their accomplishment in two Nicaraguan communities (León and Cuatro Santos).In the first two studies we track the progress of MDG4 (reduce child mortality) using the under-five mortality rate. Inequalities in mortality were mainly assessed by means of maternal education, but other social stratifications were performed on rural-urban residence and sub-regional comparisons between both communities. The last two studies describe community interventions in Cuatro Santos and their association with progress toward MDG1 (poverty reduction). Participation in interventions and poverty were visualized geographically in this remote rural community between 2004 and 2009. Other selected MDG targets were also tracked.These communities will possibly meet MDG4 even before 2015. In León, MDG progress has been accompanied by a decline in child mortality. Despite social inequalities with regard to mortality persisting in education and places of residence, these have decreased. However, it is crucial to reduce neonatal mortality if MDG4 is to be achieved. For example, in León the percentage of under-five deaths in the neonatal period has doubled from 1970 to 2005. In the remote rural area of Cuatro Santos, progress has been accelerated and no child mortality differences were observed despite the level of a mother’s education.Cuatro Santos has also progressed in the reduction of poverty and extreme poverty. The participation of the population in such community interventions as microcredit, home gardening, technical training, safe drinking water, and latrines has increased. Microcredit was an intervention that was unequally distributed in this rural area, where participation was lower in poor and extremely poor households than in non-poor households. In those households that transitioned from poor to non-poor status, microcredit, home gardening, and technical training were associated with this transition. Furthermore spatial analysis revealed that clusters of low participation in interventions overlapped with clusters of high poverty households.
5.
  • Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano, 1976- (författare)
  • Intimate partner violence in Nicaragua
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive, worldwide public health problem and one of the most common violations of human rights. The aim of this thesis were twofold: (i) to study the process and factors related to ending of IPV of Nicaraguan women and (ii) to examine to what extent IPV exposure is associated with the child linear growth and women’s contraceptive use after pregnancy.Methods: Data were collected from a panel study which followed 398 women who were inquired about their IPV exposure during pregnancy and at follow-up a median of 43 months after delivery. Three hundred seventy five of their children were available for anthropometric assessment. Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women exposed to physical/sexual IPV during pregnancy but not at follow-up. For analysis both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used.Results: Women experienced four patterns of abuse: never abused, ending abuse, continued abuse, and new abuse. Of the women who experienced any IPV before or during pregnancy, 59% (95% CI 52-65%) reported no abuse at follow-up (135/229).  Women exposed to a continued abuse pattern and those exposed to any IPV, emotional or physical IPV at follow-up had higher odds of reversible contraceptive use. Further, exposure to any IPV and controlling behavior by a partner during pregnancy impaired the index child linear growth. Girls whose mothers had low social resources during pregnancy were the most affected. Women felt that being inquired about IPV while pregnant contributed to process of ending the abuse.Ending IPV was experienced as a process with three phases: “I came to a turning point,” “I changed,” and the “Relationship ended or changed.” Successful strategies to ending abuse mainly involved utilizing informal networks. Ending IPV did not always mean ending the relationship. IPV awareness, severity of the abuse, and economic independence were individual factors associated with ending of abuse. At the relationship level, diminishing or no exposure to controlling behavior by their partner was a key element. At the community level, a supportive and less tolerant to IPV environment as well as exposure to IPV inquiry during pregnancy facilitated the process of ending abuse.Conclusion: The study found that IPV exposure is associated with the children’s linear growth and women’s reversible contraceptive use. In addition, it is clear that gender norms regarding IPV are not static and that they play an important role in facilitating the process ending the abuse by increasing abused women’s access to emotional and material support. Our results emphasize the relevance of improving public services response to IPV.
6.
  • Espinoza, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Shifts of rotavirus G and P types in Nicaragua - 2001-2003
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. - 0891-3668. ; 25:11, s. 1078-1080
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study reports the diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in León, Nicaragua during three years. There was a shift of G and P genotypes with increment of one specific genotype during the second most important peak of diarrhea occurring in the beginning of every year. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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7.
  • Wedel, Johan, 1962- (författare)
  • Religious Healing in Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: 33th Caribbean Studies Association (CSA) conference, San Andres, Colombia, May 26-30, 2008.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper inquires into the various forms of healing performed today among the Miskitu people of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. The Miskitu have a long history of relations with outsiders and with people of African origin. Miskitu cosmology and its ideas about illness and healing is today a mixture of indigenous, Afro-Caribbean, and Christian beliefs. Local healers constantly pick up new healing methods and ideas from other religious traditions in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. The paper discusses how Miskitu healers, known as curanderos, sukias, and profetas, heal by relating sickness and suffering to a world of spirits which also makes reference to the plural cultural antecedences of contemporary Miskitu worldview.
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8.
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9.
  • Wedel, Johan, 1962- (författare)
  • Sorcery and Violence in Eastern Nicaragua
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: 35th Caribbean Studies Association Conference, May 24-28, St. Peters, Barbados.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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10.
  • Wedel, Johan, 1962- (författare)
  • Spirit possession among the Miskitu of Nicaragua
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Paper for the 10th EASA conference, Ljubljana, Slovenia, August 26-29, 2008..
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Miskitu people of Eastern Nicaragua are occasionally troubled by a spectacular illness called grisi siknis or "crazy sickness," said to be caused by spirits. This paper inquires into how Miskitu healers ritually transform the experience of the afflicted through an idiom of the spirit world.
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