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Sökning: Nicaragua > (2005-2009) > Chalmers tekniska högskola > Engelska

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  • Alänge, Sverker, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Innovation Systems in Latin America: Examples from Honduras, Nicaragua and Bolivia
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the current status of local innovation and cluster activities in three Latin American countries, Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua. This included the goals to identify key stakeholders active in innovation and to analyze the relationships between the various stakeholder and cluster groups. More specifically we were also interested in analyzing the university’s role in innovation activities. Finally, our aim was to identify supports and hinders to innovation activities and the emergence of innovation clusters. The cluster model (based on Sölvell et al. 2003) that was used for analysis was a good starting point – but not sufficient. We needed to adjust and adapt it during our research process and had to add 4 key stakeholders which were missing: Unions; Aid community; Development banks; and Indigenous communities. Using our interview data from Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua for the analysis, it was found that there were many similarities across the three countries. There is limited sharing of research results and lack of diffusion of competence, learning and know-how. There is a lack of research culture (incentives, funding) and research and science is not on the national agenda or connected to industry. Limited resources, risk avoidance and low esteem in locally grown inhibit local innovation and entrepreneurship. Intellectual property rights (IPR) are poorly developed and lack links to business development. Public universities have most of the state research money as well as money from donors but have very limited contact with industry and there is a lack of trust. Some great examples of research being conducted were identified where financing for research and advanced degrees had been provided by international donor organisations. However, the researchers act as islands so research is not visible even internally at the universities. There is a lack of research culture where teachers have no time for research, and promotion/prestige does not value research. The research that exists is not linked to the market and there is no commercialization of research. Private universities are a recent phenomenon, during the last 10 years, primarily focused on education and typically with excellent contacts with industry, but with a few exceptions, without any research tradition. A few examples of well-functioning and market driven research institutes were identified. Industry is in general not making innovation and do not budget for innovation and R & D activities, although we found good examples of innovative activities in all three countries - primarily in organisation innovation and product innovation. Government policies and institutions for Innovation, Science and Technology are either non-existent or weak. Some innovative approaches were identified, e.g. in bidding system to link suppliers and producers in agro business (Bolivia), financing innovation in SMEs and support to cluster development (Nicaragua) and financing of micro businesses (Bolivia, Nicaragua). In the financial sector, traditional banks do not support SMEs and do not give loans for innovation. Instead, international donor agencies are important actors when it comes to financing, but they have their own agendas, which do not necessarily coincide with National goals. Various types of organizations, including NGOs, perform the role of linking organizations and the services provided can include financing which make them a stronger player. Laws and regulations are sometimes creating disincentives for local entrepreneurs, for example tax incentives for foreign investment, Tax free zones create islands of industry, without interaction with the local business or society. The Intellectual Property systems are weak with limited capacity to evaluate intellectual assets, mainly foreigners (90%) apply for patents and universities offer no courses or information to students or teachers on IP and IP processes. The above study provided input for an action learning project with the main goal of introducing and developing a process that will increase awareness, cooperation and debate on the role and opportunity that ‘innovation clusters’ may have in the development of innovations. A sub-goal was to increase the connectivity between the key stakeholders active in innovation activities both locally in within the wider region. As part of this action learning project various stakeholders were invited to meet and discuss the preliminary findings in a workshop at the end of our visit to each of the Latin American countries. Finally, a group of stakeholders from each country were invited to participate in the 7th Global Innovation Cluster Conference in Ottawa, Canada.
  • Kern, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Halogen oxide measurements at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua using active long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of Volcanology. - 0258-8900. ; 71, s. 659-670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Active Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements of halogen oxides were conducted at Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua from April 14 to 26, 2007. The active LP-DOAS system allowed night-time halogen measurements and reduced the ClO detection limit by an order of magnitude when compared to previous passive DOAS measurements, as wavelengths below 300 nm could be used for the DOAS retrievals. BrO was detected with an average BrO/SO2 molecular ratio of approximately 3 × 10−5 during the day. However, BrO values were below the detection limit of the instrument for all night-time measurements, a strong indication that BrO is not directly emitted, but rather the result of photochemical formation in the plume itself according to the autocatalytic “bromine explosion” mechanism. Despite the increased sensitivity, both ClO and OClO could not be detected. The achieved upper limits for the X/SO2 ratios were 5 × 10−3 and 7 × 10−6, respectively. A rough calculation suggests that ClO and OClO should be present at similar abundances in volcanic plumes. Since the DOAS technique is orders of magnitude more sensitive for OClO than for ClO, this indicates that OClO should always be detectable in plumes in which ClO is found. However, further LP-DOAS studies are needed to conclusively clarify the role of chlorine oxides in volcanic plumes.
  • Scheinberg, Sari, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of the University in Protecting and Creating Value from Indigenous Knowledge
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: 7th International Globelics Conference, October 6-8, 2009 in Dakar.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we present the experiences and results found during the first phase of an action research program being conducted in Nicaragua. The research aims to find successful ways and methods that the university can work and create relationships with indigenous communities that can result in mutual benefits. The aim is that the indigenous community can benefit by getting support in finding value in their traditional products so that they can find additional income (even commercial success) for their community. And the university can benefit in being able to research and document their experiences – in order to define new models and methods of working with the indigenous communities that results in mutual respect and goals, and clear agreements. This learning can be then used in their teaching, and diffused further in the world of complicated relationships surrounding IP and indigenous communities.
  • Scheinberg, Sari, et al. (författare)
  • Action Science – How researcher gender affects the research design and work approach
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: 10th International QMOD Conference at Campus Helsingborg, Lund University, June 18-20, 2007, Lund.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a 3 year period (2004 to 2006), an extensive action research project was conducted in Latin America and Africa, intent on exploring the local innovation systems. Over 500 persons were interviewed, representing the various stakeholders in the local innovation systems in Bolivia, Nicaragua, Honduras, Tanzania and South Africa. The goal of the research was to find the key players who are actively working with innovation, and to explore their experience in the innovation process, including the psycho-social perspective. Specifically, we sought to learn about their roles and responsibilities in the innovation, the types and quality of the relationships they had, how they managed their work, and what they believed supported and hindered their work. For example, researchers were interviewed about their research projects; industry leaders and managers were interviewed to learn about their research, development and improvement work; government officials (national, regional and local) were interviewed to learn about their current policies, laws and programs for supporting and protecting innovation, science and technology; community leaders were interviewed to learn about the local issues, needs and goals for improvement; indigenous leaders were interviewed to learn about their needs and activities of development; bankers and donor agencies were interviewed to learn about their current strategies and programs to invest in or to support innovation activities; and journalists were interviewed to learn about their editorial positions and their understanding of innovation. Because the goal of this research was to understand the innovation process from the ’experience’ of these various stakeholders, a special research design and philosophy was created and followed which was based upon a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews and observations) with a phenomenological orientation. In complying with this tradition and in order to assure that we analysed the interviews with the least amount of interpretation, we invited the interviewees to participate in a series of workshops, where we fed back our initial results, got feedback, and created the possibilities to dig deeper into the meaning of their responses and to observe and make interventions into the relationships (between the various stakeholders) in the room. The purpose of this paper is to explore and critique the design, philosophy and methodology used in this research project, both from a theoretical and practical perspective. We are interested in exploring and reflecting on how the gender and culture (values) of the researchers affect the research process and choices made as well as the consequences of using this approach – on both the researchers and stakeholders they are working with. The research approach chosen, the design and the choices made during the course of the research have been analyzed based on research methodology literature, including from a philosophical approach (Buber 1958), feministic approach (Flecher, 2001, Alvesson and Billing, 1997), value approach (Perls 1951, Nevis 1987). The methodology used was developed out from the humanistic and psychological fields and it was found that a large set of the values and choices made in the design were coincidentally similar (if not identical) to the ’feminist approach’ to conducting research.
  • Alänge, Sverker, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • “Intellectual Properties: Alternative Strategies to Value Creation in Life Sciences
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Globelics Conference, October 4-7, Trivandrum.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intellectual properties (IP) has not been an important issue when discussing development in poorer countries in the South. One reason is that the patent system, which is one essential component of IP, was developed based on needs of the industrialized countries to stimulate and protect their innovators. Consequently, the share of patents granted to developing countries during the past 15 years has been almost negligible. However, both among academics and policy makers there is a growing awareness that IP could become important for development in the South. First, the legal infrastructure and its practice, such as ownership rights and intellectual properties can be of great importance, including using properties as capital for financing investment in innovation. Second, there is also a growing interest in IP because of the market potential of innovations based on the bio-diversity assets. Part of this potential could be developed based on what indigenous people already are aware of, which poses specific questions on rights and ownership. In some countries in the South there has been a non-patenting tradition as a response to the difficulty to protect local knowledge. Scholars looking at the issue from an academic standpoint suggest publishing as a general strategy of protection of ideas from the South. Also within the framework of WIPO, there have been discussions on the role of IP in the South, including creating special conditions for the South, e.g. to promote free sharing of IP among developing countries (PIPRA) while at the same time protecting this IP from the competition from the North. Another issue is if it is ethical to protect foreign innovators rights in a developing country, as it blocks imitation, which could be a viable road towards development for countries in the South. Especially, the strong conflictive dimensions of bio-innovation systems for the South have been emphasized, e.g. the very weak attention by the international biomedical research a genda to ‘illness of poverty’, the difficulties to enforce norms that protect the environment and the bio-diversity, and the discussions about IP rights concerning use of biological knowledge. In the industrialized world there is a new trend, which closely combines intellectual property with entrepreneurship – particularly within knowledge-based industries such as internet-/software-based and life sciences. Knowledge-based innovation, through start-up of new firms or renewal of existing firms, is also an important strategy for development in some countries in the South. However, in many countries the structures for intellectual properties are very weak, and the understanding both within industry and university is limited. In addition, the law enforcement is practically non-existent which even more limits the interest of the industry and university to use intellectual properties for value creation. The paper analyzes the status of intellectual property in two Latin American countries and discusses alternative strategies for promoting and protecting knowledge on national as well as on university and company levels, with specific reference to the situation for life sciences. The discussion primarily refers to the situation in Latin America, and more specifically to two of the poorest countries in the region in terms of economic development, Bolivia and Nicaragua. These two countries are however simultaneously immensely rich when it comes to bio-diversity. The analysis is based on 110 interviews with representatives for different stakeholders, such as industry, government, university, financial sector, NGOs, patent offices. With this analysis as a base, the paper presents alternative strategies for promoting and protecting knowledge in order to make it available and utilized on markets (to make business from or trade) and by society. The necessity of developing different and complementary strategies to satisfy needs from different stakeholder perspectives is emphasized, e.g. for indigenous populations, local and international business, universities and society. The paper concludes that there is not one answer to the question on how to create value from indigenous knowledge, and there is not one strategy that fits all possible applications. Instead, there is a need of developing competence in analyzing and selecting among different strategic alternatives, including the use of IPRs. This competence development includes intellectual assets management and intellectual property management, which today both are weak in countries in the South. However, for value creation based on biodiversity and bioscience, there is also a need of developing capabilities in the area of intellectual capital management, which can be seen as a very big step, but a necessary step in order to take part in value creation in an interconnected world, where economic development to an increasing extent is dependent on knowledge based industry.
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