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1.
  • Ramberg, Joacim, 1977- (författare)
  • Focus on Special Educational Support in Swedish High Schools : Provision within or outside the students' regular classes?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Marginalization Processes across Different Settings : Going beyond the Mainstream. - Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publishing. - 978-1-5275-0329-8 - 1-5275-0329-1
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In a society that increasingly requires educational skills, academic success is fundamental to overcoming social exclusion and marginalization. The longer a child stays in school and the more opportunities he/she gets to finish high school education, the better chances he/she gets to be included in the labor market and also become a participating member of a democratic society (Includ-ED 2006). The Include-ED report highlights that there is a relationship between academic success and social inclusion, which means that schools themselves must be inclusive institutions that can provide opportunities for learning for all students. Inclusive institutions can be described in many ways and on many levels. However, one important factor that is decisive for inclusive education is where the educational support is provided (Includ-ED 2006).This chapter focuses on how special educational support is organized in Swedish high schools, and especially where the special educational support is provided, by the schools’ special educational professionals and other school staff, including how these issues are related to marginalization processes. Most research within the field of special education in Swedish high schools, targets specific schools and/or specific programs. This study is a contrast in that it covers all Swedish high schools and the data focused on here builds on 764 schools.The chapter starts with a brief description of the Swedish high school education system and policy documents appropriate to special education.This is followed by a section which focuses on the concepts of marginalization, social exclusion, social inclusion and dropout. Then the results are presented and discussed in relation to previous research.
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2.
  • Allodi Westling, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • Särskilt stöd i den svenska skolan och internationellt en jämförande analys av policy och praktik för specialpedagogiska insatser och särskilt stöd
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Specialpedagogiskpolicy och praktik i nio olika utbildningssystem har analyserats av en grupp studenter på Stockholms universitet som deltog i kursen Områdesöversikt över internationell forskning inom specialpedagogikunder hösten 2015. Dessa analyser är publicerade i Working paper 2 . Ett uppdrag från 2015 års Skolkommissionen var att beskriva modeller förtidiga insatser och särskilt stöd från olika utbildningssystem. I denna text identifieras några systembland dessa exempel som verkar fördelaktiga och deras organisation av utbildning och specialpedagogik jämförs med den svenska. En översikt av specialpedagogikens historiska rötter används för att reflektera över några utmaningar som alltjämt är närvarande i den svenska kontexten kring specialpedagogik, inclusion och särskilt stöd.
3.
  • Allodi, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • Specialpedagogiska insatser internationellt och i det svenska utbildningssystemet
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Dyslexi. - 1401-2480. ; 1, s. 6-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Tillsammans med studenter i mastersprogrammet genomfördes en analys av specialpedagogiskt stöd i några utbildningssystem som var möjliga att jämföra med det svenska systemet och som verkade framgångsrika eller åtminstone intressanta. Från en jämförelse av dessa olika modeller identifieras några komponenter som jag föreslår att vi skulle inspireras av för att kunna genomföra mer effektiva specialpedagogiska insatser i det svenska skolsystemet. En undersökning av vad som görs i andra sammanhang kan göra det tydligare för oss vad det är som saknas i specialpedagogisk praxis och ge indikationer om vilka uppfattningar som ligger bakom dessa val.
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4.
  • Allodi Westling, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • A Critical Review of Ideology, Policy and Circumstances in the Swedish Context Related to Inclusive Education Organisational Climate and Students’ Wellbeing
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Special Educational Needs and Inclusive Practices : An International Perspective. - Rotterdam : Sense Publishers. - 978-94-6300-857-0 ; s. 97--116
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The learning environment in the classroom with its daily interactions involves processes that can be developed and utilised to strengthen educational environments, preventing difficulties and enhancing learning for the students. Yet the classroom environments are imbedded in educational organisations that are influenced by local and national policies and by societal factors as ideologies and values. Based on analyses of reforms introduced in the Swedish Educational system and of their effects, this paper will analyse influences on the educational organisation that may thwart the traditionally agreed upon humanistic values of fairness and equity, and therefore may counteract the efforts to build developmentally healthy and effective learning environments. In planning interventions for more inclusive and successful learning environments in school, it would be opportune to consider the influence of organizational factors at broader levels, if they represent forces and values to combat.
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5.
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6.
  • Westling Allodi, Mara, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • "Språket - det tar lite tid att lära sig" Utvärdering av försöksverksamhet gällande 105 timmar extra undervisning i svenska eller svenska som andraspråk
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rapporten i detta Working Paper redovisar resultat från en utvärdering som genomfördes 2014-2015 på uppdrag av Skolverket, av försöksverksamheten med extraundervisning i svenska/svenska som andra språk. En bakgrundsbeskrivning presenteras av hur mottagandet av nyanlända har organiserats i det svenska skolsystemet. Studien presenterar beskrivningar och analyser från nio fallstudier baserade på dokumentation, observationer, intervjuer med 55 lärare, rektorer och ansvariga på utbildningsförvaltning, intervjuer med 38 elever och enkätsvar från 87 lärare. Rapporten visar att mottagande av nyanlända och extraundervisningen organiseras på olika sätt i dessa kommuner och att denna organisation är komplicerad och i några fall föränderlig. Innehållet och organisationen av extraundervisningen varierade. Det statliga bidraget ersatte inte alla kostnader för verksamheten i vissa fall. Lärarnas uppfattning överlag var att extraundervisningen hade flera positiva effekter. De intervjuade eleverna uppskattade möjligheten att få mer schemalagd undervisning med meningsfullt innehåll och tyckte att de kunde lära sig snabbare det svenska språket med denna förstärkning. Därför kan det anses vara problematiskt att inte alla nyanlända elever får ta del av denna extra satsning som extraundervisningen innebär. 
7.
  • Allodi Westling, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • Exercising Governance by State Funding in a Decentralized System : the National Investment on Supplementary Tuition for Newly-Arrived Students in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Leading Education: : The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers. - EERA Berlin : Freie Universität Berlin.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The governance of the Swedish Educational system was centralized before 1990 and Education was seen as a part of the Welfare state. Many reforms were implemented since then that have made the system decentralized, but goal-oriented and accountable, following the wave of New Public Management inspired reforms that were introduced in many other educational systems. On behalf of the government, the Department of Education sets the educational goals and evaluate the results, while the local authorities, the 290 municipalities, have the main responsibility to organize and deliver the adequate education to the citizens, employ the teachers, following the curriculum and other directives and regulations. The role of the National Agency of Education, has changed overtime. The NEA not only proposes goals to be reached, collects and reports data on school results, but has taken over the years a more active role in school development, developing materials and guidelines, and also distributing supplementary national funding on particular projects. Despite prioritizing Education as a key sector, the performance of the Swedish school system is declining. The results in literacy and mathematics as measured with international assessments has shown the largest dip, compared with other countries. The number of low-performer students has increased and the number of top-performers has decreased in several assessments. The share of immigrants students is 15% in Sweden. The performance decline is not imputable to an increase in their numbers, however.  On the other side, the consistent performance gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students is an issue.  Although there are policies in place that support the integration, second language learning and mother-tongue tuition of newly-arrived students, there are signals that the educational system is not working optimally for these students. For this reason, the Department of Education launched a project administrated by the NEA, giving additional funding to Language learning, with the aim to increase the efficacy of their schooling.  The schools apply for the project and get a reimbursement for each student enrolled, if they offer 105 hours extra tuition in Second Language Learning to the newly-arrived students.  The paper will look at the interaction between the national policy and the local practice, doing an analysis of policy and policy realization in a decentralized system, where the policies may be considered as re-created in the contexts of practice. The New Public Management inspired reforms may have influenced the educational system, with several unintended consequences, among others an awakening of traditional humanistic educational values and duties, and of the sense of education as public good. Bureaucratic rationalization and indirect controlling mechanisms may coexist today with fragmentation and flexible adaptations, which may increase the system's complexity and worsen its performance. The general formula of indirect steering through target setting accountability and competition, have been to some extent modified by the re-introduction of central interventions. The paper looks at how the national efforts are interpreted at the local level, and at how the policy seems operating, with reflections about the realization of the intervention aimed at improving the performances of a particular group of students all over the country; a related aim was also to  reduce the inequities in the system.MethodAnalyses are performed of the goals and implementation of the policy aimed to improve the school outcomes for the newly arrived students, by mean of national funding for supplementary tuition in Literacy and Swedish Language Learning. The study build upon case studies of schools in nine school districts that applied for the supplementary and earmarked resources, with interviews with teachers, school leaders and students.Expected OutcomesThe investment was only partially utilized over time. The target group were limited and the rules were restrictive at the start, but these features were changed over time, e.g. allowing to include tuition of younger students and students in the introduction classes. However only a limited number of school districts applied for the supplementary resources. Even in the school districts that applied, not always all the eligible schools were adopting the extra tuition. The decision to apply for the earmarked resources seemed to rest on the initiative of school leaders and engaged teachers at the school level, sometimes with the support of school district managers. In some contexts the resources were regarded by the school leaders as absolutely necessary, while in other they were an option. The educational models and the contents of the education that were offered varied to a great extent among the educational settings: scaffolding writing activities, reading of novels, multimedia production, oral expression, support with homework. However, in all the settings that were visited, the teachers were well qualified for the task and they stated that the activities aimed to a broader range of goals. Since the staff involved considered the supplementary tuition helpful and the students enjoyed to participate, it seems that the intervention might play a role in improving the outcomes for newly arrived students. In this light, the fact that only a limited number of students joined this national investment, out of them that were entitled across the country, can be seen as unfortunate. The large local autonomy of the school districts may contribute to create quality discrepancies and thus inequality in the educational system. The attempt to compensate these differences by mean of national governance and investment may not have succeeded, in this specific case, in generating more equitable outcomes.
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8.
  • Allodi Westling, Mara, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Including the Excluded Other : Rights, Policies and Refugees and Migrants in European Educational Systems
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ECER 2016 Leading Education : The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers. - Freie Universität Berlin : European Educational Research Association EERA.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tragic events related to the recent increased wave of migrants arriving in Europe fleeing from war or hard living conditions, have revealed the profound economic and social factors that give rise to mass migration. Both the sheer number of people escaping hardship and danger and the different types of countries involved highlight the permanent character of these migratory movements. This situation confronts us with the need to make choices that go beyond the current inadequate and unsteady emergency plans and implement systematic policies for resettlement and inclusion on a broader societal level.The arrival of migrants and refugees, many of whom are children, is a challenge and a great educational opportunity for the European school systems. Helping rootless people to regain a sense of stability and direction for their life requires interventions that take into account not only the socioeconomic, but also educational, psychological and cultural factors of both the refugees’ and the hosts’.Even though a large body of literature on the social inclusion of refugees is available today, investigation into refugee children and their education remains relatively underdeveloped, especially as for the implementation of school-based interventions and programmes. Research shows that refugee children have multiple complex needs, as they can suffer from psychological trauma and emotional distress. Moreover, they are required to rapidly adjust to a new language and culture as well as to build a sense of personal identity and belonging to the new place and often act as interpreters for their parents on various levels. Generally, schooling in the new country proves to be a difficult experience for refugee children, as they face linguistic and cultural challenges. Children with little or no prior education in their country are frequently unable to cope with the demands posed by the new educational settings. Language barriers have a special impact both on participation and academic success. As a result,  refugee students may experience a sense of disengagement and loneliness. However, within an inclusive, accessible and fair educational system, which offers adequate support and emphasises a universal right to education, they may be successfully included.Including refugee students is a process that cannot be delimited to the educational success of these learners, since it involves utilising the ability of whole communities to overcome barriers to learning and to develop valuable resources. Accordingly, adopting a holistic, whole-community and whole-school approach is vital to promote inclusion of refugee children in school. Such approach focuses on school ethos, welcoming environments, good induction communication, first and second language support, specialised teacher education support and adapted curricula, home liaison, community links, pastoral care, and preventing racism and bullying. Participation and learning fostered through holistic approaches help refugee children build a sense of belonging and self-confidence that in turn enables them to develop new relationships in and out school. They also help all local children and adults see refugee students not just as aliens or victims, but also as valuable partners and resources for learning and intercultural understanding.The roundtable aims:- to shed light on how schools and school systems in different European (and international) countries deal with the educational needs of refugee children refugees. Which schooling and education possibilities are open for these students?- to compare which kind and in which form for these students is provided by schools and school systems. What kind of Language learning or school community provision is put in place?- to build a European and international perspective to foster collaborative research projects on this topic, helping stake-holders by providing comparative insights into how national school systems manage and cope with the above mentioned topics.
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9.
10.
  • Allodi Westling, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • The Swedish model of upper secondary education : an analysis of recent reforms and trends of school attendance and dropout
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Swedish educational system has been reformed in several waves, adopting policies inspired by the principles of New Public Management (decentralization, standardization, accountability) and with the creation of a school market (voucher, independent schools, free choice). Another reform of the upper-secondary system in the 90-ies had the aim of making secondary education more democratic, reducing the difference between the vocational and the academic programmes, by means of increasing the academic content of the vocational tracks. The upper secondary education has now developed to a differentiated system of options, among which the students are expected to choose, recently including an apprenticeship option. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the Swedish upper secondary system, to identify some contradictions in the policy adopted and to analyze trends that are emerging in research and evaluations. The upper secondary education is free and accessible to all the students. About 4 % of the age group population, having intellectual disability attends though a separate system. The throughput shows that a large share of students (more than 30%) does not achieve the required degree within the expected period. The students lacking the qualifications required for the 18 vocational or academic programmes (about 20% of the age group) are since 2011 enrolled in 5 different introduction programmes (IP). Evaluations of the development of the IP show large differences among providers, difficulties in adapting the organization to the students’ situation, and high degree of need of support among the students. The more comprehensive secondary system with reduced difference between academic and vocational tracks may have contributed to increased dropout among disadvantaged students. The policy of upper secondary education wanting to conciliate goals, of both realizing a democratic and equitable system, and raising efficiency, performance, and the educational standards, seems not to work as expected, while at the same time epidemiological studies show increased rate of anxiety, depression and distress among young people.
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