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  • A. da Cruz, Marcia Gabriely, et al. (författare)
  • Biocoatings and additives as promising candidates for ultralow friction systems
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Green chemistry letters and reviews. - 1751-8253 .- 1751-7192. ; 14:2, s. 356-379
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The achievement of frictionless systems, known as superlubricity, has become of great importance concerning energy saving and emission reduction. In parallel, the drive toward sustainability and environmental aspects has led to intense advances in the research and development of biobased materials. From the standpoint of Green Chemistry principles, this review presents a critical overview of the latest findings and future perspectives on the application of biobased materials aiming at superlubricant pursuits. The progress in the use of biomacromolecules, such as chitosan, cellulose, and lignin, as additives to lubricants or coating materials, are addressed, as well as the advances on sustainable coatings based on diamond-like carbon (DLC). Deeper investigations on the development of non-hazardous processes dedicated to the tribological properties of DLC, such as electrochemical synthesis using environment-friendly solvents to generate molecular precursors, widen the perspectives to achieve sustainable materials. Besides, the exploration of the tribochemical interactions between the DLC surface and lubricants containing biobased materials arises as a promising strategy to achieve green superlubricity as a viable and scalable process, through different pathways: by hydrogen bonds between lubricant and additives, via surface passivation of the functional groups present in these biomacromolecules or by biomimicking natural joints.
  • A Hulten, Maj, et al. (författare)
  • On the origin of the maternal age effect in trisomy 21 Down syndrome: the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection model
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Reproduction. - 1470-1626 .- 1476-3990. ; 139:1, s. 1-9
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have recently documented that trisomy 21 mosaicism is common in human foetal ovaries. On the basis of this observation we propose that the maternal age effect in Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the differential behaviour of trisomy 21 in relation to disomy 21 oocytes during development from foetal life until ovulation in adulthood. in particular, we suggest that trisomy 21 oocytes, lagging behind those that are disomic, may escape the timed pruning of the seven million in foetal life to the 300-400 finally selected for ovulation. The net effect of this preferential elimination will be an accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes in the ovarian reserve of older women. We here highlight the implications of this Oocyte Mosaicism Selection (OMS) model with respect to the prevalent view that the maternal age effect is complex, dependent on many different biological and environmental factors. We examine conclusions drawn from recent large-scale studies in families, tracing DNA markers along the length of chromosome 21q between parents and DS children, in comparison to the OMS model. We conclude that these family linkage data are equally compatible with the maternal age effect originating from the accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes with advancing maternal age. One relatively straightforward way to get to grips with what is actually going on in this regard would be to compare incidence of trisomy 21 oocytes (and their pairing configurations) in foetal ovaries with that in oocytes at the meiosis I stage from adult women.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3:S08003:3, s. S08003-
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.
  • Aalaei, Kataneh, et al. (författare)
  • Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1040-8398. ; 59:12, s. 1829-1839
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.
  • Aalberg, Toril, et al. (författare)
  • The framing of politics as strategy and game : A review of concepts, operationalizations and key findings
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism. - 1464-8849 .- 1741-3001. ; 13:2, s. 162-178
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A key concept in research on the media coverage of politics is the game or strategy frame. Contrasted with coverage of politics as issues, theframing of politics as a strategic game is marked by features such as winning and losing as the central concern and a focus on how candidates or parties are doing in opinion polls. The pervasiveness of such framing is, however, disputed since (1) the way in which the frames are conceptualized and operationalized differs significantly; and (2) while some use terms such as 'game frame' and 'strategy frame' as synonymous, others argue that there is a conceptual difference between them. Against this background, this article reviews research on the media's framing ofpolitics as a strategic game, what concepts have been used, and how they have been operationalized; and suggests a synthesis and ways of improving conceptual clarity and comparability in research on the media's use of strategy and/or game frames. © SAGE Publications 2011.
  • Aalkjær, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Sympathetic and Sensory-Motor Nerves in Peripheral Small Arteries.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Physiological reviews. - 1522-1210. ; 101:2, s. 495-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Small arteries, which play important roles in controlling blood flow, blood pressure, and capillary pressure, are under nervous influence. Their innervation is predominantly sympathetic and sensory motor in nature, and while some arteries are densely innervated, others are only sparsely so. Innervation of small arteries is a key mechanism in regulating vascular resistance. In the second half of the previous century, the physiology and pharmacology of this innervation were very actively investigated. In the past 10-20 yr, the activity in this field was more limited. With this review we highlight what has been learned during recent years with respect to development of small arteries and their innervation, some aspects of excitation-release coupling, interaction between sympathetic and sensory-motor nerves, cross talk between endothelium and vascular nerves, and some aspects of their role in vascular inflammation and hypertension. We also highlight what remains to be investigated to further increase our understanding of this fundamental aspect of vascular physiology.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3:S08002
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme includes collisions with lighter ions, lower energy running and dedicated proton-nucleus runs. ALICE will also take data with proton beams at the top LHC energy to collect reference data for the heavy-ion programme and to address several QCD topics for which ALICE is complementary to the other LHC detectors. The ALICE detector has been built by a collaboration including currently over 1000 physicists and engineers from 105 Institutes in 30 countries, Its overall dimensions are 16 x 16 x 26 m(3) with a total weight of approximately 10 000 t. The experiment consists of 18 different detector systems each with its own specific technology choice and design constraints, driven both by the physics requirements and the experimental conditions expected at LHC. The most stringent design constraint is to cope with the extreme particle multiplicity anticipated in central Pb-Pb collisions. The different subsystems were optimized to provide high-momentum resolution as well as excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a broad range in momentum, up to the highest multiplicities predicted for LHC. This will allow for comprehensive studies of hadrons, electrons, muons, and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Most detector systems are scheduled to be installed and ready for data taking by mid-2008 when the LHC is scheduled to start operation, with the exception of parts of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and Electro Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal). These detectors will be completed for the high-luminosity ion run expected in 2010. This paper describes in detail the detector components as installed for the first data taking in the summer of 2008.
  • Aasi, Parisa, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Culture in IT Governance Five Focus Areas : A Literature Review
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of IT - Business Alignment and Governance. - 1947-9611 .- 1947-962X. ; 8:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Information technology governance (ITG) is one of the top challenges of managers today and culture in different level can have an important role while implementing IT governance. This is a new and significant issue, which has not been investigated deeply. This paper sets out to provide a systematic review of the literature, focusing on the role of culture in IT governance. The literature review findings are categorized through the lens of IT governance's five focus areas which are IT strategic alignment, IT value delivery, Risk management, IT resource management and Performance measurement. This study contributes to the field of IT governance by reviewing and discussing the existing literature on the role of culture on IT governance. This literature review resulted that there are few research studies in this topic and many of the IT governance focus areas are not covered regarding the role of culture in these IT governance areas.
  • Abacan, MaryAnn, et al. (författare)
  • The Global State of the Genetic Counseling Profession
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 27:2, s. 183-197
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The profession of genetic counseling (also called genetic counselling in many countries) began nearly 50 years ago in the United States, and has grown internationally in the past 30 years. While there have been many papers describing the profession of genetic counseling in individual countries or regions, data remains incomplete and has been published in diverse journals with limited access. As a result of the 2016 Transnational Alliance of Genetic Counseling (TAGC) conference in Barcelona, Spain, and the 2017 World Congress of Genetic Counselling in the UK, we endeavor to describe as fully as possible the global state of genetic counseling as a profession. We estimate that in 2018 there are nearly 7000 genetic counselors with the profession established or developing in no less than 28 countries.
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