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1.
  • Andersson, Eva A, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Maximal Aerobic Power versus Performance in Two Aerobic Endurance Tests among Young and Old Adults
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Gerontology. - 0304-324X. ; :Aug, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Aerobic fitness is of great value for reducing risk of mortality and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: This study evaluated the performance in and correlations between a new test (five-minute pyramid test, 5MPT), the six-minute walk-test (6MWT) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) among old and young adults. Methods: Forty-four habitually active adults (females and males), 23 old (64-79 years) and 21 young (20-32 years) participated. In the 5MPT, the participants moved back and forth along a short walkway (5.5 m) over boxes (height: 'old people' 0.42 m, 'young people' 0.62 m) arranged like an elongated step pyramid for 5 min. Power in the pyramid test (5MPT(power)) was calculated as the product of numbers of laps, body weight, gravity and highest box level divided by time. A 6MWT and a maximal cycle ergometer test for direct measurements of VO(2max) were also performed. In all tests heart rate, with on-line electrocardiography, and perceived exertion were recorded. Results: There was a strong correlation between the 5MPT(power) and VO(2max) for the entire group studied (r = 0.98), and each of the four subgroups old and young females and males separately (r = 0.78-0.98). Contrary to several earlier studies, especially involving people with various diseases, the present data showed that 6MWT cannot be used to predict VO(2max) among old females and young adults. The correlation with VO(2max) was weaker for the 6MWT than for the 5MPT(power). The relative performance values for the old compared to the young (ratio old/young × 100) were considerably lower in 5MPT(power) and VO(2max) (47-55%) than in distance and 'work' in the 6MWT (82-86%). Conclusions: The results, with age and gender variations, can be valuable information in health-fitness contexts, since measuring physical aerobic capacity is very significant in connection with risk evaluations of mortality and various diseases. The 5MPT is a rapid, functional, easy and inexpensive tool for predicting assessed maximal aerobic power.
2.
  • Andersson, Eva A., et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity for persons with obesity—a health project reported
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Forum on Public Policy Online. - Oxford Round Table. - 1938-9809. ; 4:Spring
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In public health contexts, increased physical activity habits and fitness (aerobic and strength capacities) are positively related for promoting health and preventing  and treating common diseases/problems, including obesity and overweight. A strongly graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity has been shown both for adults and children. However, a lower mortality risk has been shown for those with greater weight but good aerobic capacity than for those of recommended weight but less fit. On the basis of a health project with physical activity for persons with or without obesity, the paper discusses evidence-based methods for promoting physical activity. General guidelines for the amount of physical activity for persons are described, as are the numerous physiological and medical advantages of physical activity. The economic benefits are also illustrated. The paper exemplifies methods of measuring physical activity habits and physical fitness. These two factors must be observed when showing improvements in public-health contexts, including groups with obesity. 
3.
  • Andersson, Helena M., et al. (författare)
  • Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 40:2, s. 372-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.
4.
  • Arvidson, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Bmc Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 13:855
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses.METHODS: This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models.RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006.CONCLUSIONS: The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the employees' engagement in physical activity, and the importance of the employees' maintaining a physically active lifestyle.
5.
  • Backman, Erik (författare)
  • Friluftsliv
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies. - London : Taylor & Francis. - 0022-0272. ; 43:2, s. 269-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the last decade, expanding research investigating school subject Physical Education (PE), indicates a promotion of inequalities regarding which children benefit from PE teaching. Outdoor education and its Scandinavian equivalent friluftsliv, is a part of the PE curriculum in many countries and these practices have been claimed to have the potential to contribute to more equity in PE teaching. Through an investigation of how stipulations regarding friluftsliv in the national Swedish PE curriculum are transformed and interpreted into 31 local PE syllabus documents, this paper investigates the possibilities for friluftsliv to fulfil this potential. In an analysis inspired by educational sociologist Basil Bernstein, I claim that Swedish PE teachers’ marginalised interpretation of friluftsliv indicates its weak classification when a part of PE. When friluftsliv is addressed in PE, the strong dominance of a performance code transforms it into mere sport activities. The results of this study highlight questions regarding PE teachers’ interpretation of learning aims and their work with text documents. It also discusses alternatives to implementing friluftsliv through PE and the role of teachers in curriculum reforms. 
6.
  • Backman, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Outdoor adventure
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Outdoor recreation in change : current knowledge and future challenges : proceedings. ; s. 370-371
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent decades there has been an increasing dynamic interplay in the “borderlands” of sport between closely related phenomena like outdoor recreation and nature tourism (see e.g. Bale 2006, Fredman et al. 2008a and Wheaton 2007). Two trends within these “borderlands” are explored in this study: the sportification of traditional outdoor activities and the liberation of outdoor activities from the landscapes in which they were originally performed. From a perspective of modernization, the following questions are addressed: 1.          What is the state of knowledge regarding trends within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports?2.          How are examples of activities, places and perspectives within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports expressed? To answer these questions, conventional literature studies of, firstly, academic journals and, secondly; magazines, photographs and commercials, have been conducted. The result shows that tendencies towards the sportification of outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports (see e.g. Breivik 2010 and Wheaton 2004) and the liberation of these activities from their “original” landscape (see e.g. Daniel 2007 and Bottenburg & Salome 2010) are significant. Of importance from a practitioner perspective is that a “grey-zone” containing several new activities and dynamics is being established in the “borderlands” between sport and outdoor recreation (Sandell, Arnegård & Backman 2011). From an academic perspective, the identified intersection between the climate debate and the nature-related activities that can now be performed indoors is important (see e.g. Sandell 2011 and Sandell & Öhman 2010). Another result that indicates a need for further research is that issues of accessibility, especially for young people, should be considered in relation to the increasing certification and specialization that characterizes the development of outdoor activities (see e.g. Bäckström 2011, Fredman et al. 2008b, Lundvall 2011 and Odden 2008). The current renegotiation of ideals, activities, places and environments related to the traditions of outdoor recreation and sport is discussed, most notably regarding: a)         Constructions and environments for activities previously performed in “natural” landscapes.b)         Accessibility to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports for young people.c)          The health aspect of traditional and sportified outdoor activities.d)         Inclusion and exclusion in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.e)         Physical planning and sustainable development in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.
7.
8.
  • Carlson, Rolf (författare)
  • The Development to Success in Swedish Biathlon 
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Baltic Sport Society Journal. - Riga, Lettland : Latvian Academy of Sport Education. ; 1:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the study was to contribute to an explanation why Swedes of both sexes achieved great international success simultaniously in a small national sport such as biathlon. The elite group consisted of the male and female national team. A control group matched in pairs was identified in variables age, sex and athletic performance. All investigated athletes were products of the swedish Sport Academy System (RIG, upper secondary education). Data were collected via interviews with athletes, coaches and managers. Compared to the controls, elite athletes were more often born during the first quadrupal of the year, less injured and less sick during RIG years and experienced coaches more favourable in terms of acting and individualisation.
9.
  • Drezner, Jonathan A, et al. (författare)
  • Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine. - 0306-3674. ; 47:3, s. 137-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and collectively are the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. The 12-lead ECG is utilised as both a screening and diagnostic tool for detecting conditions associated with SCD. Fundamental to the appropriate evaluation of athletes undergoing ECG is an understanding of the ECG findings that may indicate the presence of an underlying pathological cardiac disorder. This article describes ECG findings present in cardiomyopathies afflicting young athletes and outlines appropriate steps for further evaluation of these ECG abnormalities. The ECG findings defined as abnormal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine.
10.
  • Drezner, Jonathan A, et al. (författare)
  • Normal electrocardiographic findings
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine. - 0306-3674. ; 47:3, s. 125-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electrocardiographic changes in athletes are common and usually reflect benign structural and electrical remodelling of the heart as a physiological adaptation to regular and sustained physical training (athlete's heart). The ability to identify an abnormality on the 12-lead ECG, suggestive of underlying cardiac disease associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD), is based on a sound working knowledge of the normal ECG characteristics within the athletic population. This document will assist physicians in identifying normal ECG patterns commonly found in athletes. The ECG findings presented as normal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine.
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