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Sökning: WAKA:ref > Göteborgs universitet > (2000-2004) > (2000) > Högskolan i Jönköping

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  • Allwood, Jens, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Cooperation, Dialogue and Ethics
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Human Computer Studies. ; 53, s. 871-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes some of the basic cooperative mechanisms of dialogue. Ideal cooperation is seen as consisting of four features (cognitive consideration, joint purpose, ethical consideration and trust), which can also to some extent be seen as requirements building on each other. Weaker concepts such as ‘coordination’ and ‘collaboration’ have only some of these features or have them to lesser degrees. We point out the central role of ethics and trust in cooperation, and contrast the result with popular AI accounts of collaboration. Dialogue is also seen as associated with social activities, in which certain obligations and rights are connected with particular roles. Dialogue is seen to progress through the written, vocal or gestural contributions made by participants. Each of the contributions has associated with it both expressive and evocative functions, as well as specific obligations for participants. These functions are dependent on the surface form of a contribution, the activity and the local context, for their interpretation. We illustrate the perspective by analyzing dialogue extracts from three different activity types (a travel dialogue, a quarrel and a dialogue with a computer system). Finally, we consider what kind of information is shared in dialogue, and the ways in which dialogue participants manifest this sharing to each other through linguistic and other communicative behaviour. The paper concludes with a comparison to other accounts of dialogue and prospects for integration of these ideas within dialogue systems.
  • Axelsson, Å, et al. (författare)
  • How bystanders perceive their cardiopulmonary resuscitation intervention; a qualitative study.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572. ; 47:1, s. 71-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The importance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to arrival of the emergency medical service is well documented. In Sweden, CPR is initiated prior to emergency medical services (EMS) arrival in about 30% of cardiac arrests out-of-hospital, a figure which should be improved urgently. To do so, it is of interest to know more about the bystanders’ perceptions of their intervention. A qualitative method inspired by the phenomenographic approach was applied to 19 bystanders who had performed CPR. In the analysis, five main categories and 14 subcategories emerged. The main categories were: to have a sense of humanity, to have competence, to feel an obligation, to have courage and to feel exposed. Interviews described how humanity and concern for another human being were the foundation of their intervention. CPR training offers the possibility to give appropriate help in this emergency. If the aim of CPR training was extended beyond teaching the skill of CPR to include preparation of the rescuer for the intervention and his/her reactions, this might increase the number of people able to take action in the cardiac arrest situation.
  • Battese, G. E., et al. (författare)
  • Efficiency of Labour Use in the Swedish Banking Industry: A stochastic cost frontier approach
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Empirical Economics. ; 25:4, s. 623-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of the deregulation of the Swedish banking industry in the mid-1980s, and the consequent banking crisis, on productive efficiency and productivity growth in the industry. An unbalanced panel of Swedish banks is studied over the period, 1984 to 1995. A total of 1275 observations are analysed for 156 banks that were observed for between two and twelve years. We adopt a translog stochastic frontier model to estimate the labour-use requirements in terms of the variables, loans, deposits, guarantees, number of branches and total inventories, together with the year of observation. The inefficiency effects in the labour-use frontier are modelled in terms of the number of branches, total inventories, the type of bank and year of observation. The technical inefficiencies of labour use of Swedish banks were found to be significant, with mean inefficiencies per year estimated to be between about 8 and 15 per cent over the years of study. However, the confidence interval predictions for these inefficiencies were found to be quite wide.
  • Berggren, U, et al. (författare)
  • Relaxation vs. cognitively oriented therapies for dental fear.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of dental research. - 0022-0345. ; 79:9, s. 1645-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive therapy has been reported for the treatment of dental phobia, but comparisons with other behavioral treatments are scarce. This study investigated the outcome of two modes of treatment for phobic dental fear. Relaxation and cognitively oriented therapy were compared in a sample of 112 adult fearful dental patients. The patient made questionnaire assessments of background and outcome variables, and the specialist dentist rated successful/non-successful outcome. It was shown that a higher number of patients who received cognitively oriented therapy completed the treatment program, while anxiety was more reduced among patients who received relaxation-oriented therapy. Dropout during the initial phobia therapy with a psychologist was related to lower motivation (willingness to engage in treatment), while failures during dental treatment after the completion of therapy were related to higher levels of general fear and anxiety. A multiple logistic regression model explaining 67% of the variance revealed that the risk of failure was only slightly increased by general fears, while patients with low (below median) motivation ran a 3.6-times-higher risk of dropping out. In conclusion, it was shown that the two treatment methods were both effective in reducing dental phobic reactions. However, while cognitively oriented therapy resulted in a higher number of patients completing therapy, relaxation-oriented treatment generally resulted in a more significant reduction in dental fear as well as in general anxiety and fear. Motivation was found to be a significant predictor of successful treatment outcome.
  • Björkström, G, et al. (författare)
  • Electro-acupuncture in the treatment of children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 34:1, s. 21-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a long series of electro-acupuncture (EAP) sessions on bedwetting symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five children (age range 7-16 years) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and treated earlier without success were included in the study. The median number of wet nights per week was 4.7 before treatment. Bedwetting, voided volume, sleep and nocturia were evaluated 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after 20 sessions of EAP lasting 8 weeks. RESULTS: All the children, with the exception of one, tolerated EAP treatment well. At the three follow-up sessions it was found that the number of dry nights had increased gradually from a median of 2.3 in the pre-test to 3.0, 4.3 and 5.0 per week, respectively. Compared to pre-treatment findings there were more dry nights in 65% of the children (p < 0.001) and 5 out of 23 children were responders (> 90% reduction of the numbers of wet nights) at the 6 months' follow-up. According to the parents, the sleep arousal threshold had decreased in about 50% of the children.
  • Diedrich, Andreas, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Knowledge-as-Action and Knowledge Development
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International AIDEA Conference on Managing between Local and Global Contexts, Luiss University, Rome, Italy.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper takes a critical look at the way in which knowledge development programmes are constructed by management in organisations. It is suggested that even though an increasing number of individuals in charge of human resource management is realising that knowledge development is not only concerned with the spreading of information, the difficulties arise when theory has to be put into practice. The paper is a pilot study for a larger project on knowledge development in mergers and acquisitions and is based on the empirical material collected by means of open-ended interviews with human resource managers at 11 large Swedish multinational corporations over a period of roughly half a year. Above all, we will argue that managers can explicate their novel thoughts on knowledge management, but when knowledge development is implemented in organisations, they act within the confines of their existing understanding of reality which is based on modernistic ideals of abstract, expert knowledge and rational tools of making the world more transparent.
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