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Sökning: WAKA:ref > Lissner Lauren 1956 > Heitmann Berit L > Tidskriftsartikel > Refereegranskat

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1.
  • Baker, Jennifer L, et al. (författare)
  • Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 88:6, s. 1543-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P < 0.0001) associated with PPWR at both 6 and 18 mo postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those in the heaviest category of prepregnancy BMI at 6 (P < 0.0001) and 18 (P < 0.05) mo postpartum. When modeled together with adjustment for possible confounding, these associations were marginally attenuated. We calculated that, if women exclusively breastfed for 6 mo as recommended, PPWR could be eliminated by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, breastfeeding as recommended could eliminate weight retention by 6 mo postpartum in many women.
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2.
  • Heitmann, Berit L, et al. (författare)
  • Can adverse effects of dietary fat intake be overestimated as a consequence of dietary fat underreporting?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. ; 8, s. 1332-1337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research Unit for Dietary Studies and Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-1399 Copenhagen K, Denmark. blh@ipm.hosp.dk OBJECTIVE: To describe the consequences of systematic reporting bias by the obese for diet-disease relationships. DESIGN: The present report used 24-hour urinary nitrogen and estimates of 24-hour energy expenditure to assess error in diet reporting, and examined the consequence of accounting for this error for associations between dietary fat intake and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. SETTING: Sub-study to the Danish MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) project, carried out in 1987-1988. SUBJECTS: A random sub-sample of the adult Danish male population (n = 152). RESULTS: Correcting dietary fat for underreporting error weakened, rather than strengthened, the association between dietary fat intake and LDL-cholesterol by reducing the slope of the regression from beta = 3.4, P = 0.02 to beta = 2.7, P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: This example illustrates that systematic underreporting of dietary fat by high-risk groups such as the obese may produce an overestimated association. These results imply that previous epidemiological studies showing a positive association between percentage of energy from fat and other health outcomes, e.g. cancer and heart disease, may have overestimated the negative effects of a high-fat diet. If we were able to correctly assess dietary fat intake in general populations, recommendations for fat intake may be more liberal than the 30% suggested today. Improved assessment of fat intake in epidemiological studies is necessary for future development of evidence-based recommendations for diet and health . PMID: 16372929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
  • Heitmann, Berit L, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood obesity: successes and failures of preventive interventions
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nutrition Reviews. - 1753-4887. ; 67:Suppl 1, s. 89-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively. The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small".
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5.
  • Heitmann, Berit L, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary underreporting by obese individuals--is it specific or non-specific?
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: British Medical Journal. ; 311, s. 986-989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE--To examine the distribution of patterns of macronutrient density in relation to obesity. DESIGN--Cross sectional. SETTING--Denmark. SUBJECTS--323 men and women aged 35-65 years, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bias in dietary reporting of energy and protein intake in relation to percentage body fat, assessed by comparison of data from an interview on dietary intake with data estimated from 24 hour nitrogen output, validated by administering p-aminobenzoic acid, and estimated 24 hour energy expenditure. RESULTS--Degree of obesity was positively associated with underreporting of total energy and protein, whereas compared with total energy reported, protein was overreported by the obese subjects. CONCLUSION--Errors in dietary reporting of protein seem to occur disproportionately with respect to total energy, suggesting a differential reporting pattern of different foods. Although, on average, all subjects showed a greater underreporting of energy than of protein, this was most common in the obese subjects. Snack-type foods may be preferentially forgotten when obese people omit food items in dietary reporting. These results seem to agree with the general assumption that obese people tend to underreport fatty foods and foods rich in carbohydrates rather than underreport their total dietary intake. These results may have implications for the interpretation of studies of diet and comorbidities related to obesity. PMID: 7580640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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6.
  • Heitmann, Berit L, et al. (författare)
  • Do we eat less fat, or just report so?
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. ; 24, s. 435-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Medicine CF, Glostrup University Hospital, Denmark. BeHe@Glostruphosp.KbhAmt.dk OBJECTIVE: To examine secular trends in diet reporting error. METHODS: Dietary information was obtained from 228 Danish men and women in 1987-88, and from 122 men and women in 1993-94. RESULTS: Bias in dietary reporting of energy and protein intake was assessed by comparing reported intake with intake data, estimated from 24 h nitrogen output, validated by administering P-aminobenzoic acid, and estimated 24 h energy expenditure. Total energy was under-reported more than energy from protein at both surveys, suggesting that energy from other nutrients, like fat and/or carbohydrate, must have been under-reported too. There was a greater under-reporting for energy than for protein in 1993-94 (29%) than in 1987-88 (15%). Obesity was positively associated with under-reporting, both in 1987-88 and in 1993-94. CONCLUSION: The higher macro-nutrient specific error in 1993-94 compared to 1987-88 may reflect a trend to increasingly omitting fat and/or carbohydrate-rich foods in dietary reporting. This may be a consequence of increased awareness of diet intake, which, in turn, may be related to intensified public health campaigns to reduce intake of fat and/or simple carbohydrate. These results may have consequences for our understanding of the apparent decline in dietary fat and associated health benefits. PMID: 10805500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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7.
  • Heitmann, Berit L, et al. (författare)
  • Hip circumference and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in men and women
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Obesity Research. ; 12, s. 482-487
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research Unit for Dietary Studies and the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark. BLH@ipm.hosp.dk OBJECTIVE: It has recently been demonstrated that, in middle-aged women, a wide hip circumference is a protective factor for a number of health endpoints in later years. The effect seems to be independent of both overweight and waist circumference. This paper aims to replicate this finding in another population-based sample consisting of women and men. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This was a prospective observational study consisting of a random subset of adult Danes. A total of 2987 subjects born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952 and 35, 45, 55, or 65 years of age (at examination in 1987 to 1988) participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) project, with measurements of height, weight, and hip and waist circumference taken. Through personal identification numbers, incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) until the end of 1998 and all causes of death until 2001 were retrieved from the National Registers of Hospital Discharge. There was an average of 10 years of follow-up for incidence of CVD and CHD and 13 years of follow-up for total mortality. RESULTS: Large hip circumference, relative to body size and waist circumference, predicted less incidence of CVD, CHD, and total death in women. This was not the case in men; BMI and waist circumference were the strongest independent predictors. DISCUSSION: A large hip circumference seems to have independent and positive effects on CVD and CHD morbidity and mortality in women, but no protective effect on cardiovascular health in men. However, a borderline significant protective effect on total mortality was observed. PMID: 15044665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
  • Heitmann, Berit L, et al. (författare)
  • Hip Hip Hurrah! Hip size inversely related to heart disease and total mortality
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Obesity Reviews. - 1467-7881. ; 12:6, s. 478-481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the past decade a series of published reports have examined the value of studying the relation between hip circumferences and cardiovascular end points. Specifically, in a series of recent studies the independent effects of hip circumference have been studied after adjustment for general obesity and/or waist circumference. These studies have been remarkable in terms of their consistency, and in the unexpected finding of an adverse effect of small hip size, after statistically correcting for differences in general and abdominal size. The hazard related to a small hip size may be stronger for women than men, but is evident in both genders. In this ‘viewpoint’, we wish to draw attention to the emerging body of evidence and to encourage researchers to continue collecting measures of lower body size in their surveys.
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9.
  • Lissner, Lauren, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary fat and obesity: evidence from epidemiology
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. ; 49 (2), s. 79-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Internal Medicine, Göteborg University, Sweden. The epidemiological evidence that a high-fat diet promotes the development of obesity is considered suggestive but not definitive. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of various epidemiological methods that have been used to address this issue as well as an updated summary of the existing evidence. Ecological studies describing dietary fat intake and obesity at the population level provide mixed results and are likely to be biased by both confounding and unknown data quality factors that differ systematically across the populations studied. Cross-sectional studies are generally in agreement that the concentration of fat in the diet is positively associated with relative weight. Prospective studies of diet in relation to subsequent weight change give inconsistent results. This may be due to behavioural factors such as dieting in response to weight gain; in addition, this type of study rarely takes into account the possible interaction between genetic predisposition and dietary fat in promoting weight gain. Finally, intervention studies in free-living subjects are considered, providing evidence of a consistent but short-lived period of active weight loss on low-fat diets. The experimental evidence on this relationship is more conclusive than the epidemiological evidence, although biological mechanisms remain controversial. Some areas for future epidemiological research involve: longitudinal studies of dietary fat intake as a predictor of growth in children; observational studies relating total dietary fat and specific types of fat to overall as well as regional adiposity; and randomized intervention studies of the effect of low-fat diets with particular emphasis on and familial predisposition to obesity and other possible modifying factors. PMID: 7743988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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