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  • Cabrera-Moksnes, Claudia, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Socio-economic gradient in food selection and diet quality among 70-year olds
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The journal of nutrition, health & aging. - 1279-7707. ; 11:6, s. 466-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess social disparities in food choices and diet quality in a population of 70-year old Swedes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study among participants in the 2000 Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Goteborg. PARTICIPANTS: A representative population of men (n=233) and women (n=321) from Goteborg, a city on the south western coast of Sweden. METHODS: One hour diet history interviews were performed and 35 specific foods and food groups were identified; in addition a diet quality index (DQI) was calculated. Differences in food choices and diet quality scores were tested across educational and socio-economic index categories (SEI). RESULTS: Men with higher education and SEI had higher diet quality scores than those with lower socio-economic status, while no differences in DQI were noted in women. Further analysis of women based on their husband's occupational group also yielded no differences in diet quality. When studying individual foods, socio-economic differences were observed in women and men. CONCLUSIONS: Selection of food varies by education and occupational status in both sexes although socio-economic disparities in diet quality were observed in men only.
  • Eiben, Gabriele, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Obesity in 70-year-old Swedes: secular changes over 30 years
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. ; 29, s. 810-817
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Sweden. gabriele.eiben@medfak.gu.se OBJECTIVE: Secular increases in obesity have been widely reported in middle-aged adults, but less is known about such trends among the elderly. The primary purpose of this paper is to document the most recent wave of the obesity epidemic in population-based samples of 70-y-old men and women from Göteborg. Additionally, we will investigate the influences of physical activity, smoking and education on these secular trends. POPULATIONS AND METHODS: Five population-based samples of 3702 70-y-olds (1669 men and 2033 women) in Göteborg, Sweden, born between 1901 and 1930, were examined in the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies (H70) between 1971 and 2000. Cohort differences in anthropometric measures were the main outcomes studied. Physical activity, smoking habits and education were assessed by comparable methods in all cohorts. Subsamples of the women in the latest two cohorts (birth years 1922 and 1930) were also part of the Prospective Population Study of Women in Göteborg. In these women, it was possible to examine body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR) longitudinally since 1968. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Significant upward trends were found for height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), WHR, prevalence of overweight (BMI> or =25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) across cohorts in both sexes. In 2000, 20% of the 70-y-old men born in 1930 were obese, and the largest increment (almost doubling) had occurred between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. In 70-y-old women the prevalence of obesity was 24% in 2000, a 50% increase compared to the cohort born 8 y earlier. BMI increased over time in all physical activity, smoking and education groups, with the exception of never-smoking men. Although 70-y-old women in 2000 were heavier than cohorts examined 8 y previously, data from the women studied longitudinally revealed that these differences were already present in earlier adulthood. In conclusion, the elderly population is very much part of the obesity epidemic, although secular trends in BMI were detected slightly earlier in men than in women. The health implications of these secular trends should be focused on in future gerontological research. PMID: 15917864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Eiben, Gabriele, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Secular trends in diet among elderly Swedes - cohort comparisons over three decades
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. ; 7, s. 637-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Box 454, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. gabriele.eiben@medfak.gu.se OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare dietary practices among different birth cohorts of 70-year-old Swedes, who were examined between 1971 and 2000. SETTING: Göteborg, Sweden. DESIGN: Four population-based samples of 1360 70-year-olds, born in 1901, 1911, 1922 and 1930, have undergone health examinations and dietary assessments over a period of almost three decades. One-hour diet history (DH) interviews were conducted in 1971, 1981, 1992 and 2000 with a total of 758 women and 602 women. The formats and contents of the dietary examinations were similar over the years. Statistical analysis of linear trends was conducted, using year of examination as the independent variable, to detect secular trends in food and nutrient intakes across cohorts. RESULTS: At the 2000 examination, the majority of 70-year-olds consumed nutritionally adequate diets. Later-born cohorts consumed more yoghurt, breakfast cereals, fruit, vegetables, chicken, rice and pasta than earlier-born cohorts. Consumption of low-fat spread and milk also increased, along with that of wine, light beer and candy. In contrast, potatoes, cakes and sugar were consumed less in 2000 than in 1971. The ratio of reported energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate did not show any systematic trend over time in women, but showed a significant upward trend in men. CONCLUSIONS: The diet history method has captured changes in food selections in the elderly without changing in general format over three decades. Dietary quality has improved in a number of ways, and these findings in the elderly are consistent with national food consumption trends in the general population. PMID: 15251054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Tognon, Gianluca, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Does the Mediterranean diet predict longevity in the elderly? A Swedish perspective.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands). - 1574-4647. ; 33:3, s. 439-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary pattern analysis represents a useful improvement in the investigation of diet and health relationships. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet pattern has been associated with reduced mortality risk in several studies involving both younger and elderly population groups. In this research, relationships between dietary macronutrient composition, as well as the Mediterranean diet, and total mortality were assessed in 1,037 seventy-year-old subjects (540 females) information. Diet macronutrient composition was not associated with mortality, while a refined version of the modified Mediterranean diet index showed a significant inverse association (HR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.89; 0.98). As expected, inactive subjects, smokers and those with a higher waist circumference had a higher mortality, while a reduced risk characterized married and more educated people. Sensitivity analyses (which confirmed our results) consisted of: exclusion of one food group at a time in the Mediterranean diet index, exclusion of early deaths, censoring at fixed follow-up time, adjusting for activities of daily living and main cardiovascular risk factors including weight/waist circumference changes at follow up. In conclusion, we can reasonably state that a higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, especially by consuming wholegrain cereals, foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a limited amount of alcohol, predicts increased longevity in the elderly.
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