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  • Cotgreave, Ian, et al. (författare)
  • Pyriproxifen and microcephaly: an investigation of potential ties to the ongoing "Zika epidemic"
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • As part of the Swetox mission to react to emerging concerns in chemical health and environmental safety, a preliminary litterature investigation was undertaken to gather all readily available scientific information on PPF with respect to safety assessment, in order to better understand potential links between chemical exposure and the devopment of microcephaly in affected areas. Therefore the contents of the report do not constitute an attempt at either questioning the use of existing regulatory data in the manner prescribed by international regulatory proceedures, or as a new risk assessment, based on the scientific information and concepts discussed. Here we report our findings, with particular emphasis on exisiting regulatory information, potential for lack of translation of results from regulatory animal testing to humans, lack of human exposure data and suggestions on plausible mode(s) of action of PPF in human neurodevelopmental adversities such as microcephaly.
  • Drakvik, E., et al. (författare)
  • Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, “Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment” was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EU-funded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages: • We are at a turning point: multiple exposures and their combined effects require better management to protect public health and the environment from hazardous chemical mixtures. • Regulatory initiatives should be launched to investigate the opportunities for all relevant regulatory frameworks to include prospective mixture risk assessment and consider combined exposures to (real-life) chemical mixtures to humans and wildlife, across sectors. • Precautionary approaches and intermediate measures (e.g. Mixture Assessment Factor) can already be applied, although, definitive mixture risk assessments cannot be routinely conducted due to significant knowledge and data gaps. • A European strategy needs to be set, through stakeholder engagement, for the governance of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and mixtures. The strategy would include research aimed at scientific advancement in mechanistic understanding and modelling techniques, as well as research to address regulatory and policy needs. Without such a clear strategy, specific objectives and common priorities, research, and policies to address mixtures will likely remain scattered and insufficient. © 2019 The Authors
  • Melgar, S, et al. (författare)
  • Cytolytic capabilities of lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes in normal and chronically inflamed human intestine
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 60:1-2, s. 167-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cell-mediated lymphocyte cytotoxicity in ileum and colon of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and controls was investigated. Frequencies of cells expressing perforin and Fas-ligand (FasL) were determined by immunomorphometry. mRNA expression of perforin, granzyme B and FasL in T cells and subsets was assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cytotoxicity of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes was analysed without ex vivo activation in three functional assays: (1) anti-CD3-dependent T-cell receptor (TCR)-/CD3-mediated redirected cytotoxicity, (2) Fas-/FasL-mediated TCR-/CD3-independent cytotoxicity and (3) natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. Inflammation in ileum of CD patients caused increased frequency of perforin-expressing cells and enhanced perforin-dependent TCR-/CD3-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, lymphocytes in the inflamed colon of UC or Crohn's colitis patients did not display this cytotoxicity nor did lymphocytes of normal colon. Normal colon lymphocytes showed spontaneous Fas-/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity. This activity was retained but not enhanced in inflamed UC colon. In contrast, a significant increase of FasL-expressing cells was seen in situ. Inflammation did not induce NK cell activity in colonic lymphocytes. Intestinal lymphocytes comprise effectors active in two different cytolytic processes. 'Classical' cytotoxic T lymphocytes in small intestine and lymphocytes executing TCR-/CD3-independent FasL-/Fas-mediated killing of unknown biological role present throughout the intestinal mucosa. Ongoing normal cytolytic processes seem to be enhanced by chronic inflammation.
  • Ask, Per, et al. (författare)
  • 1985
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - 0733-2467 .- 1520-6777. ; 4:3, s. 247-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A urinary flowmeter has been designed, using a quickly rotating disc and a balance principle. The flowmeter has a fast and accurate response to changing flows. The time delay of the flowmeter is less than about 0.25 s. The improved accuracy in recording urinary flow using the presented flowmeter should make it possible to extract more information from the detrusor pressure and urinary flow relations, relevant for assessing lower urinary tract function.
  • Ask, Per, 1950-, et al. (författare)
  • Blood flow measurements
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: The measurement instrumentation sensors handbook. - : CRC Press. - 0849383471
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Ask, Per, 1950-, et al. (författare)
  • ECG Electrodes : A Study of Electrical and Mechanical Long-term Properties
  • 1979
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - 0001-5172 .- 1399-6576. ; 23:2, s. 189-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The long-term properties of commercially available ECG-electrodes were studied by investigating the parameters: polarization potential, electrical impedance, adhesion, and skin reactions during a period of 7 days. As expected, the most stable polarization potentials were obtained for Ag/AgCl electrodes. Certain simple disposable electrodes showed large polarization potential variations. The most stable electrode impedance was obtained for disposable electrodes with stable adhesion and equipped with an electrode cup or similar. Unchanged adhesion and mechanical properties during the test period were shown by the disposable electrodes with a large self-adhesive collar.
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