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  • Kördel, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Biological Laboratory X-Ray Microscopy
  • 2019
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Zone-plate-based soft x-ray microscopes operating in the water window allow high-resolution and high-contrast imaging of intact cells in their near-native state. Laboratory-source-based x-ray microscopes are an important complement to the accelerator-based instruments, providing high accessibility and allowing close integration with other cell-biological techniques. Here we present recent biological applications using the Stockholm laboratory water-window x-ray microscope, which is based on a liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source. Technical improvements to the microscope in the last few years have resulted in increased x-ray flux at the sample and significantly improved stability and reliability. In addition to this, vibrations in key components have been measured, analyzed and reduced to improve the resolution to 25 nm half-period. The biological applications include monitoring the development of carbon-dense vesicles in starving human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T), imaging the interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and HEK293T target cells, and most recently studying a newly discovered giant DNA virus and the process of viral replication inside a host amoeba. All biological imaging was done on cryo-frozen hydrated samples in 2D and in some cases 3D.
  • Olofsson, K., et al. (författare)
  • Acoustic formation of multicellular tumor spheroids enabling on-chip functional and structural imaging
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lab on a Chip. - : ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY. - 1473-0197 .- 1473-0189. ; 18:16, s. 2466-2476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the complex 3D tumor microenvironment is important in cancer research. This microenvironment can be modelled in vitro by culturing multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS). Key challenges when using MCTS in applications such as high-throughput drug screening are overcoming imaging and analytical issues encountered during functional and structural investigations. To address these challenges, we use an ultrasonic standing wave (USW) based MCTS culture platform for parallel formation, staining and imaging of 100 whole MCTS. A protein repellent amphiphilic polymer coating enables flexible production of high quality and unanchored MCTS. This enables high-content multimode analysis based on flow cytometry and in situ optical microscopy. We use HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma, A498 and ACHN renal carcinoma, and LUTC-2 thyroid carcinoma cell lines to demonstrate (i) the importance of the ultrasound-coating combination, (ii) bright field image based automatic characterization of MTCS, (iii) detailed deep tissue confocal imaging of whole MCTS mounted in a refractive index matching solution, and (iv) single cell functional analysis through flow cytometry of single cell suspensions of disintegrated MTCS. The USW MCTS culture platform is customizable and holds great potential for detailed multimode MCTS analysis in a high-content manner.
  • Benninger, R. K. P., et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescence imaging of two-photon linear dichroism : Cholesterol depletion disrupts molecular orientation in cell membranes
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Biophysical Journal. - 0006-3495 .- 1542-0086. ; 88:1, s. 609-622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The plasma membrane of cells is an ordered environment, giving rise to anisotropic orientation and restricted motion of molecules and proteins residing in the membrane. At the same time as being an organized matrix of defined structure, the cell membrane is heterogeneous and dynamic. Here we present a method where we use fluorescence imaging of linear dichroism to measure the orientation of molecules relative to the cell membrane. By detecting linear dichroism as well as fluorescence anisotropy, the orientation parameters are separated from dynamic properties such as rotational diffusion and homo energy transfer ( energy migration). The sensitivity of the technique is enhanced by using two-photon excitation for higher photo-selection compared to single photon excitation. We show here that we can accurately image lipid organization in whole cell membranes and in delicate structures such as membrane nanotubes connecting two cells. The speed of our wide-field imaging system makes it possible to image changes in orientation and anisotropy occurring on a subsecond timescale. This is demonstrated by time-lapse studies showing that cholesterol depletion rapidly disrupts the orientation of a fluorophore located within the hydrophobic region of the cell membrane but not of a surface bound probe. This is consistent with cholesterol having an important role in stabilizing and ordering the lipid tails within the plasma membrane.
  • Benninger, Richard K. P., et al. (författare)
  • Live Cell Linear Dichroism Imaging Reveals Extensive Membrane Ruffling within the Docking Structure of Natural Killer Cell Immune Synapses
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biophysical Journal. - 0006-3495 .- 1542-0086. ; 96:2, s. L13-L15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have applied fluorescence imaging of two-photon linear dichroism to measure the subresolution organization of the cell membrane during formation of the activating (cytolytic) natural killer (NK) cell immune synapse (IS). This approach revealed that the NK cell plasma membrane is convoluted into ruffles at the periphery, but not in the center of a mature cytolytic NK cell IS. Time-lapse imaging showed that the membrane ruffles formed at the initial point of contact between NK cells and target cells and then spread radialy across the intercellular contact as the size of the IS increased, becoming absent from the center of the mature synapse. Understanding the role of such extensive membrane ruff ling in the assembly of cytolytic synapses is an intriguing new goal.
  • Brandt, Ludwig (författare)
  • NK Cell Cytotoxicity at the Single Cell Level
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells with the ability to recognize and eliminate virally infected cells and cancer cells without prior sensitization. There is a functional heterogeneity between individual NK cells, where some NK cells are more efficient at killing cancer cells than others. Methods that allow studies of single NK cells are required to understand the functional differences and how they correlate with the activation and development status of the NK cell.This thesis focuses on the development and implementation of microchip- based imaging of NK cells, which is covered in five papers. Paper I presents a microchip screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual NK cells, by confining single NK cells together with target cells in microwells, followed by microscopy screening over extended time periods and automated image analysis. In paper II, the microchip platform was applied to test the ability of a novel trispecific killer engager (TriKE) to mediate an NK cell-dependent immune response. The process of NK cell education was studied in paper III and for that the image analysis methods for the microchip platform was further developed, in order to reveal new insight into how the education process affects the cytotoxic function of single NK cells. In paper IV, a previously developed microchip assay was extended to study NK cell migration and cytotoxicity in a more in vivo-like 3D collagen matrix. Paper V shows how NK cells can eliminate platelets in the presence of anti-platelet antibodies.In summary, this thesis covers the development and applications of time- lapse imaging using microwells for studying important NK cell functions in different settings. Understanding NK cell heterogeneity has the potential for improving e.g. cancer cell therapies.
  • Christakou, Athanasia, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of natural killer cell immune surveillance against solid liver tumors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: MicroTAS 2015 - 19th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. - : Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society. - 9780979806483 ; , s. 915-917
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate a method for investigating natural killer (NK) cell aggression against ultrasound-assisted human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 solid tumors in a multi-well microdevice. We quantify the activity of human primary IL-2 activated NK cells against HepG2 tumors for up to five days and we present the correlation between NK cell numbers versus average tumor volume and final tumor outcome (growth or defeat). We suggest future applications on formation of tumors originated from primary tumors cells and other tumor components as well as primary NK originating from the patient for use in personalized immunotherapy.
  • Christakou, Athanasia. E., et al. (författare)
  • Aggregation and long-term positioning of cells by ultrasound in a multi-well microchip for high-resolution imaging of the natural killer cell immune synapse
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences 2011, MicroTAS 2011. - 9781618395955 ; , s. 329-331
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we investigate the ability of Natural Killer (NK) cells to form ultrasound-mediated intercellular contacts with target cells in a multi-well microdevice by high-resolution confocal-microscopy imaging of inhibitory immune synapses. Furthermore, we compare the NK-Target cell cluster migration with and without ultrasound actuation. Experiments indicate that clusters of cells are positioned and maintained centered in the wells for 17 hours when they are exposed continuously to ultrasound. Our system can be used for both screening high numbers of events in low resolution and also for high resolution imaging of long term cell-cell interactions.
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