SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Abdi E) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Abdi E)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 23
  • [1]23Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Lozano, Rafael, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; , s. 2091-2138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of “leaving no one behind”, it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health-related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990–2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. Methods: We measured progress on 41 health-related SDG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health-related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0–100, with 0 as the 2·5th percentile and 100 as the 97·5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. Findings: The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59·4 (IQR 35·4–67·3), ranging from a low of 11·6 (95% uncertainty interval 9·6–14·0) to a high of 84·9 (83·1–86·7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially, particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attainment by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030. Interpretation: The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health-related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health-related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence-related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains—curative interventions in the case of NCDs—towards multisectoral, prevention-oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the SDGs. What is clear is that our actions—or inaction—today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030.
  •  
2.
  • Murray, Christopher J. L., et al. (författare)
  • Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 392:10159, s. 1995-2051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods. Methods: We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10–54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10–14 years and 50–54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15–19 years and 45–49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories. Findings: From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46·4–52·0). The TFR decreased from 4·7 livebirths (4·5–4·9) to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·5), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10–19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34–40) to 22 livebirths (19–24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83·8 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197·2% (193·3–200·8) since 1950, from 2·6 billion (2·5–2·6) to 7·6 billion (7·4–7·9) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2·0%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1·1% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2·5% in 1963 to 0·7% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2·7%. The global average age increased from 26·6 years in 1950 to 32·1 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15–64 years) increased from 59·9% to 65·3%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1·0 livebirths (95% UI 0·9–1·2) in Cyprus to a high of 7·1 livebirths (6·8–7·4) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0·08 livebirths (0·07–0·09) in South Korea to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·6) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (TFO30; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0·3 livebirths (0·3–0·4) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3·1 livebirths (3·0–3·2) in Niger. TFO30 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017. 33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2·0% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger. Interpretation: Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
  •  
3.
  •  
4.
  •  
5.
  • Jerusalem, G, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous vs intermittent extended adjuvant letrozole for breast cancer: Final results of randomized phase 3 SOLE (Study of Letrozole Extension) and SOLE Estrogen Substudy.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Late recurrences in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers remain an important challenge. Avoidance or delayed development of resistance represents the main objective in extended endocrine therapy. In animal models, resistance was reversed with restoration of circulating estrogen level during interruption of letrozole treatment. This phase 3 randomized, open-label Study of Letrozole Extension (SOLE) studied the effect of extended intermittent letrozole treatment in comparison with continuous letrozole. In parallel, the SOLE estrogen sub-study (SOLE-EST) analyzed the level of estrogen during the interruption of treatment.SOLE enrolled 4884 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-positive, operable breast cancer between December 2007 and October 2012 and among them, 104 patients were enrolled in SOLE-EST. They must have undergone local treatment and have completed 4-6 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Patients were randomized between continuous letrozole (2.5 mg/day orally for 5 years) and intermittent letrozole treatment (2.5 mg/day during 9 months followed by a 3-month interruption in years 1-4 and then 2.5 mg/day during all year 5).Intention-to-treat population included 4851 women in SOLE (n=2425 in intermittent and n=2426 in continuous letrozole groups) and 103 women in SOLE-EST (n=78 in intermittent and n=25 in continuous letrozole groups). After a median follow-up of 84 months, 7-year disease-free survival was 81.4% in intermittent group and 81.5% in continuous group (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95%CI: 0.91-1.17). Reported adverse events were similar in both groups. Circulating estrogen recovery was demonstrated within 6 weeks after the stop of letrozole treatment.Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy by intermittent administration of letrozole did not improve disease-free survival compared to continuous use despite the recovery of circulating estrogen level. The similar disease-free survival coupled with previously reported quality-of-life advantages suggest intermittent extended treatment is a valid option for patients who require or prefer a treatment interruption.
  •  
6.
  • Colleoni, M., et al. (författare)
  • Low-Dose Oral Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Maintenance for Hormone Receptor-Negative Early Breast Cancer: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 22-00
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X. ; 34:28, s. 3400-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To evaluate the benefit of low-dose cyclophosphamide and methotrexate (CM) maintenance, which previously demonstrated antitumor activity and few adverse effects in advanced breast cancer, in early breast cancer. International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trial 22-00, a randomized phase III clinical trial, enrolled 1,086 women (1,081 intent-to-treat) from November 2000 to December 2012. Women with estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-negative (< 10% positive cells by immunohistochemistry) early breast cancer any nodal and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, were randomly assigned anytime between primary surgery and 56 days after the first day of last course of adjuvant chemotherapy to CM maintenance (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/day orally continuously and methotrexate 2.5 mg twice/day orally on days 1 and 2 of every week for 1 year) or to no CM. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS), which included invasive recurrences, second (breast and nonbreast) malignancies, and deaths. After a median of 6.9 years of follow-up, DFS was not significantly better for patients assigned to CM maintenance compared with patients assigned to no CM, both overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.06;P = .14) and in triple-negative (TN) disease (n = 814; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.06). Patients with TN, node-positive disease had a nonstatistically significant reduced HR (n = 340; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.05). Seventy-one (13%) of 542 patients assigned to CM maintenance did not start CM. Of 473 patients who received at least one CM maintenance dose (including two patients assigned to no CM), 64 (14%) experienced a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event; elevated serum transaminases was the most frequently reported (7%), followed by leukopenia (2%). CM maintenance did not produce a significant reduction in DFS events in hormone receptor-negative early breast cancer. The trend toward benefit observed in the TN, node-positive subgroup supports additional exploration of this strategy in the TN, higher-risk population. (C) 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
  •  
7.
  • Rashid-Abdi, Mulki, et al. (författare)
  • Low rate of COVID-19 seroconversion in health-care workers at a Department of Infectious Diseases in Sweden during the later phase of the first wave; a prospective longitudinal seroepidemiological study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Infectious Diseases. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 2374-4235 .- 2374-4243. ; 53:3, s. 169-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Health-care workers are at risk of contracting and transmitting SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and the rate of seroconversion in an environment with high exposure to SARS-CoV-2.Methods: 131 health-care workers at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Vasteras, Sweden, were included in the study. Abbott's SARS-COV-2 IgG immunoassay was used with a signal cut-off ratio of >= 1.4. Every third week from the beginning of May, blood samples were drawn, and the participants completed a questionnaire regarding symptoms consistent with COVID-19 and the result of any SARS-CoV-2 PCR performed since the last sampling occasion. Participants with IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were re-sampled only on the sixth and last occasion.Results: At the start of the study, 18 (15%) participants had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. At the end, 25 (19%) of 131 participants were seropositive. One case of asymptomatic infection was detected, and two cases with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 did not develop IgG antibodies.Conclusion: The low rate of seroconversion during the study suggests that it is possible to prevent transmission of SARS-COV-2 in a high-exposure environment. Compliance with adequate infection control guidelines is the likely explanation of our findings.
  •  
8.
  • Ribi, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life under extended continuous versus intermittent adjuvant letrozole in lymph node-positive, early breast cancer patients: the SOLE randomised phase 3 trial.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 1532-1827. ; 120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the phase III SOLE trial, the extended use of intermittent versus continuous letrozole for 5 years did not improve disease-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Intermittent therapy with 3-month breaks may be beneficial for patients' quality of life (QoL).In the SOLE QoL sub-study, 956 patients completed the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) symptom and further QoL scales up to 24 months after randomisation. Differences in change of QoL from baseline between the two administration schedules were tested at 12 and 24 months using repeated measures mixed-models. The primary outcome was change in hot flushes at 12 months.There was no difference in hot flushes at 12 months between the two schedules, but patients receiving intermittent letrozole reported significantly more improvement at 24 months. They also indicated less worsening in vaginal problems, musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, physical well-being and mood at 12 months. Overall, 25-30% of patients reported a clinically relevant worsening in key symptoms and global QoL.Less symptom worsening was observed during the first year of extended treatment with the intermittent administration. For women experiencing an increased symptom burden of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy, an intermittent administration is a safe alternative.Clinical trial information: NCT00651456.
  •  
9.
  • Zhao, Baodan, et al. (författare)
  • High Open-Circuit Voltages in Tin-Rich Low-Bandgap Perovskite-Based Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advanced Materials. - : Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. - 0935-9648 .- 1521-4095. ; 29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low-bandgap CH3NH3(PbxSn1–x)I3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) hybrid perovskites (e.g., ≈1.5–1.1 eV) demonstrating high surface coverage and superior optoelectronic properties are fabricated. State-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) performance is reported with power conversion efficiencies approaching 10% in planar heterojunction architecture with small (<450 meV) energy loss compared to the bandgap and high (>100 cm2 V−1s−1) intrinsic carrier mobilities.
  •  
10.
  • Abdi, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Light-emitting nano-porous silicon structures fabricated using a plasma hydrogenation technique
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology. - 0921-5107. ; 124-125:SUPPL., s. 483-487
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The preparation of porous silicon films by DC-plasma hydrogenation and subsequent annealing of amorphous silicon films on silicon and glass substrates is reported for the first time. The effects of varying plasma power and annealing temperatures have been investigated and characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A plasma density of about 5.5 W/m2 and hydrogenation-annealing temperatures of about 400 °C was found to be suitable for the formation of nano-crystalline silicon films with grain diameters of the order of 3-10 nm. The intensity and wavelength of the emitted visible light were found to depend on the hydrogenation and annealing conditions, and patterning of the silicon films using standard lithography allowed the creation of light-emitting patterns.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 23
  • [1]23Nästa

Kungliga biblioteket hanterar dina personuppgifter i enlighet med EU:s dataskyddsförordning (2018), GDPR. Läs mer om hur det funkar här.
Så här hanterar KB dina uppgifter vid användning av denna tjänst.

 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy