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Sökning: WFRF:(Abe Koji)

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1.
  • Dichgans, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • METACOHORTS for the study of vascular disease and its contribution to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration : An initiative of the Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260. ; 12:12, s. 1235-1249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dementia is a global problem and major target for health care providers. Although up to 45% of cases are primarily or partly due to cerebrovascular disease, little is known of these mechanisms or treatments because most dementia research still focuses on pure Alzheimer's disease. An improved understanding of the vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and dementia, particularly by small vessel disease, is hampered by imprecise data, including the incidence and prevalence of symptomatic and clinically “silent” cerebrovascular disease, long-term outcomes (cognitive, stroke, or functional), and risk factors. New large collaborative studies with long follow-up are expensive and time consuming, yet substantial data to advance the field are available. In an initiative funded by the Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, 55 international experts surveyed and assessed available data, starting with European cohorts, to promote data sharing to advance understanding of how vascular disease affects brain structure and function, optimize methods for cerebrovascular disease in neurodegeneration research, and focus future research on gaps in knowledge. Here, we summarize the results and recommendations from this initiative. We identified data from over 90 studies, including over 660,000 participants, many being additional to neurodegeneration data initiatives. The enthusiastic response means that cohorts from North America, Australasia, and the Asia Pacific Region are included, creating a truly global, collaborative, data sharing platform, linked to major national dementia initiatives. Furthermore, the revised World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases version 11 should facilitate recognition of vascular-related brain damage by creating one category for all cerebrovascular disease presentations and thus accelerate identification of targets for dementia prevention.
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2.
  • Finzell, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • A Detailed Observational Analysis of V1324 Sco, the Most Gamma-Ray-luminous Classical Nova to Date
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X. ; 852:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has recently been discovered that some, if not all, classical novae emit GeV gamma-rays during outburst, but the mechanisms involved in the production ofgamma-rays are still not well understood. We present here a comprehensive multiwavelength data set - from radio to X-rays - for the most gamma-ray-luminous classical nova to date, V1324 Sco. Using this data set, we show that V1324 Sco is a canonical dusty Fe ii-type nova, with a maximum ejecta velocity of 2600 km s-1 and an ejecta mass of a few × 10-5 M⊙. There is also evidence for complex shock interactions, including a double-peaked radio light curve which shows high brightness temperatures at early times. To explore why V1324 Sco was so gamma-ray luminous, we present a model of the nova ejecta featuring strong internal shocks and find that higher gamma-ray luminosities result from higher ejecta velocities and/or mass-loss rates. Comparison of V1324 Sco with other gamma-ray-detected novae does not show clear signatures of either, and we conclude that a larger sample of similarly well-observed novae is needed to understand the origin and variation of gamma-rays in novae.
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3.
  • Hagiwara, Akifumi, et al. (författare)
  • Myelin Measurement : Comparison Between Simultaneous Tissue Relaxometry, Magnetization Transfer Saturation Index, and T1w/T2w Ratio Methods
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging has been widely used for estimating myelin content in the brain. Recently, two other approaches, namely simultaneous tissue relaxometry of R1 and R2 relaxation rates and proton density (SyMRI) and the ratio of T1-weighted to T2-weighted images (T1w/T2w ratio), were also proposed as methods for measuring myelin. SyMRI and MT imaging have been reported to correlate well with actual myelin by histology. However, for T1w/T2w ratio, such evidence is limited. In 20 healthy adults, we examined the correlation between these three methods, using MT saturation index (MTsat) for MT imaging. After calibration, white matter (WM) to gray matter (GM) contrast was the highest for SyMRI among these three metrics. Even though SyMRI and MTsat showed strong correlation in the WM (r?=?0.72), only weak correlation was found between T1w/T2w and SyMRI (r?=?0.45) or MTsat (r?=?0.38) (correlation coefficients significantly different from each other, with p values?amp;lt;?0.001). In subcortical and cortical GM, these measurements showed moderate to strong correlations to each other (r?=?0.54 to 0.78). In conclusion, the high correlation between SyMRI and MTsat indicates that both methods are similarly suited to measure myelin in the WM, whereas T1w/T2w ratio may be less optimal.
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4.
  • Ohta, Yasuyuki, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-dependent effects of chromogranin B P413L allelic variant as disease modifier in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 25:21, s. 4771-4786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genetic studies yielded conflicting results regarding a role for the variant chromogranin B (CHGB)(P413L) allele as a disease modifier in ALS. Moreover, potential deleterious effects of the CHG(BP413L) variant in ALS pathology have not been investigated. Here we report that in transfected cultured cells, the variant CHGB(L413) protein exhibited aberrant properties including mislocalization, failure to interact with mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and defective secretion. The CHGB(L413) transgene in SOD1(G37R) mice precipitated disease onset and pathological changes related to misfolded SOD1 specifically in female mice. However, the CHGB(L413) variant also slowed down disease progression in SOD1(G37R) mice, which is in line with a very slow disease progression that we report for a Swedish woman with ALS who is carrier of two mutant SOD1(D90A) alleles and two variant CHGB(P413)L and CHGB(R458Q) alleles. In contrast, overexpression of the common CHGB(P413) allele in SOD1(G37R) mice did not affect disease onset but significantly accelerated disease progression and pathological changes. As in transgenic mice, the CHGB(P413L) allele conferred an earlier ALS disease onset in women of Japanese and French Canadian origins with less effect in men. Evidence is presented that the sex-dependent effects of CHGB(L413) allelic variant in ALS may arise from enhanced neuronal expression of CHGB in females because of a sex-determining region Y element in the gene promoter. Thus, our results suggest that CHGB variants may act as modifiers of onset and progression in some ALS populations and especially in females because of higher expression levels compared to males.
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  • Resultat 1-4 av 4

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