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Sökning: WFRF:(Accordini Simone)

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1.
  • Janson, C., et al. (författare)
  • Bronchodilator reversibility in asthma and COPD: findings from three large population studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 54:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bronchodilator response (BDR) testing is used as a diagnostic method in obstructive airway diseases. The aim of this investigation was to compare different methods for measuring BDR in participants with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to study to the extent to which BDR was related to symptom burden and phenotypic characteristics. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured before and 15 min after 200 mu g of salbutamol in 35 628 subjects aged >= 16 years from three large international population studies. The subjects were categorised in three groups: current asthma (n=2833), COPD (n=1146) and no airway disease (n=31 649). Three definitions for flow-related reversibility (increase in FEV1) and three for volume-related reversibility (increase in FVC) were used. The prevalence of bronchodilator reversibility expressed as increase FEV1 >= 12% and 200 mL was 17.3% and 18.4% in participants with asthma and COPD, respectively, while the corresponding prevalence was 5.1% in those with no airway disease. In asthma, bronchodilator reversibility was associated with wheeze (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.79), atopy (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.79) and higher exhaled nitric oxide fraction, while in COPD neither flow- nor volume-related bronchodilator reversibility was associated with symptom burden, exacerbations or health status after adjusting for pre-bronchodilator FEV1. Bronchodilator reversibility was at least as common in participants with COPD as those with asthma. This indicates that measures of reversibility are of limited value for distinguishing asthma from COPD in population studies. However, in asthma, bronchodilator reversibility may be a phenotypic marker.
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2.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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3.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Being overweight in childhood, puberty, or early adulthood : Changing asthma risk in the next generation?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 145:3, s. 791-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Overweight status and asthma have increased during the last decades. Being overweight is a known risk factor for asthma, but it is not known whether it might also increase asthma risk in the next generation.Objective: We aimed to examine whether parents being overweight in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood is associated with asthma in their offspring.Methods: We included 6347 adult offspring (age, 18-52 years) investigated in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) multigeneration study of 2044 fathers and 2549 mothers (age, 37-66 years) investigated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study. Associations of parental overweight status at age 8 years, puberty, and age 30 years with offspring's childhood overweight status (potential mediator) and offspring's asthma with or without nasal allergies (outcomes) was analyzed by using 2-level logistic regression and 2-level multinomial logistic regression, respectively. Counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed to establish whether observed associations were direct or indirect effects mediated through the offspring's own overweight status.Results: We found statistically significant associations between both fathers' and mothers' childhood overweight status and offspring's childhood overweight status (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.45-3.42] and 2.45 [95% CI, 1.86-3.22], respectively). We also found a statistically significant effect of fathers' onset of being overweight in puberty on offspring's asthma without nasal allergies (relative risk ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.23-4.33]). This effect was direct and not mediated through the offspring's own overweight status. No effect on offspring's asthma with nasal allergies was found.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic factors long before conception can increase asthma risk and that male puberty is a time window of particular importance for offspring's health.
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4.
  • Kuiper, I. N., et al. (författare)
  • Associations of Preconception Exposure to Air Pollution and Greenness with Offspring Asthma and Hay Fever
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1660-4601 .- 1661-7827. ; 17:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated if greenness and air pollution exposure in parents' childhood affect offspring asthma and hay fever, and if effects were mediated through parental asthma, pregnancy greenness/pollution exposure, and offspring exposure. We analysed 1106 parents with 1949 offspring (mean age 35 and 6) from the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Mean particulate matter (PM(2.5)and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O-3) (mu g/m(3)) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were calculated for parents 0-18 years old and offspring 0-10 years old, and were categorised in tertiles. We performed logistic regression and mediation analyses for two-pollutant models (clustered by family and centre, stratified by parental lines, and adjusted for grandparental asthma and education). Maternal medium PM(2.5)and PM(10)exposure was associated with higher offspring asthma risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.23, 95%CI 1.32-3.78, OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.36-3.80), and paternal high BC exposure with lower asthma risk (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.11-0.87). Hay fever risk increased for offspring of fathers with medium O(3)exposure (OR 4.15, 95%CI 1.28-13.50) and mothers with high PM(10)exposure (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.19-5.91). The effect of maternal PM(10)exposure on offspring asthma was direct, while for hay fever, it was mediated through exposures in pregnancy and offspring's own exposures. Paternal O(3)exposure had a direct effect on offspring hay fever. To conclude, parental exposure to air pollution appears to influence the risk of asthma and allergies in future offspring.
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5.
  • Marcon, A., et al. (författare)
  • Trends in smoking initiation in Europe over 40 years: A retrospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Tobacco consumption is the largest avoidable health risk. Understanding changes of smoking over time and across populations is crucial to implementing health policies. We evaluated trends in smoking initiation between 1970 and 2009 in random samples of European populations. We pooled data from six multicentre studies involved in the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts consortium, including overall 119,104 subjects from 17 countries (range of median ages across studies: 33-52 years). We estimated retrospectively trends in the rates of smoking initiation (uptake of regular smoking) by age group, and tested birth cohort effects using Age-Period-Cohort (APC) modelling. We stratified all analyses by sex and region (North, East, South, West Europe). Smoking initiation during late adolescence (16-20 years) declined for both sexes and in all regions (except for South Europe, where decline levelled off after 1990). By the late 2000s, rates of initiation during late adolescence were still high (40-80 per 1000/year) in East, South, and West Europe compared to North Europe (20 per 1000/year). Smoking initiation rates during early adolescence (11-15 years) showed a marked increase after 1990 in all regions (except for North European males) but especially in West Europe, where they reached 40 per 1000/year around 2005. APC models supported birth cohort effects in the youngest cohorts. Smoking initiation is still unacceptably high among European adolescents, and increasing rates among those aged 15 or less deserve attention. Reducing initiation in adolescents is fundamental, since youngsters are particularly vulnerable to nicotine addiction and tobacco adverse effects.
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6.
  • Nerpin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in healthy men and women from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 49:7, s. 969-979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a marker for type 2 inflammation used in diagnostics and management of asthma. In order to use FENO as a reliable biomarker, it is important to investigate factors that influence FENO in healthy individuals. Men have higher levels of FENO than women, but it is unclear whether determinants of FENO differ by sex. Objective To identify determinants of FENO in men and women without lung diseases. Method Fractional exhaled nitric oxide was validly measured in 3881 healthy subjects that had answered the main questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III without airways or lung disease. Results Exhaled NO levels were 21.3% higher in men compared with women P < 0.001. Being in the upper age quartile (60.3-67.6 years), men had 19.2 ppb (95% CI: 18.3, 20.2) higher FENO than subjects in the lowest age quartile (39.7-48.3 years) P = 0.02. Women in the two highest age quartiles (54.6-60.2 and 60.3-67.6 years) had 15.4 ppb (14.7, 16.2), P = 0.03 and 16.4 ppb (15.6, 17.1), P = FENO, compared with the lowest age quartile. Height was related to 8% higher FENO level in men (P < 0.001) and 5% higher FENO levels in women (P = 0.008). Men who smoked had 37% lower FENO levels and women had 30% lower levels compared with never-smokers (P < 0.001 for both). Men and women sensitized to both grass and perennial allergens had higher FENO levels compared with non-sensitized subjects 26% and 29%, P Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in men than women. Similar effects of current smoking, height, and IgE sensitization were found in both sexes. FENO started increasing at lower age in women than in men, suggesting that interpretation of FENO levels in adults aged over 50 years should take into account age and sex.
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7.
  • Nordeide Kuiper, I., et al. (författare)
  • Lifelong exposure to air pollution and greenness in relation to asthma, rhinitis and lung function in adulthood
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate if air pollution and greenness exposure from birth till adulthood affects adult asthma, rhinitis and lung function. Methods: We analysed data from 3428 participants (mean age 28) in the RHINESSA study in Norway and Sweden. Individual mean annual residential exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were averaged across susceptibility windows (0–10 years, 10–18 years, lifetime, adulthood (year before study participation)) and analysed in relation to physician diagnosed asthma (ever/allergic/non-allergic), asthma attack last 12 months, current rhinitis and low lung function (lower limit of normal (LLN), z-scores of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC below 1.64). We performed logistic regression for asthma attack, rhinitis and LLN lung function (clustered with family and study centre), and conditional logistic regression with a matched case-control design for ever/allergic/non-allergic asthma. Multivariable models were adjusted for parental asthma and education. Results: Childhood, adolescence and adult exposure to NO2, PM10 and O3 were associated with an increased risk of asthma attacks (ORs between 1.29 and 2.25), but not with physician diagnosed asthma. For rhinitis, adulthood exposures seemed to be most important. Childhood and adolescence exposures to PM2.5 and O3 were associated with lower lung function, in particular FEV1 (range ORs 2.65 to 4.21). No associations between NDVI and asthma or rhinitis were revealed, but increased NDVI was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC in all susceptibility windows (range ORs 1.39 to 1.74). Conclusions: Air pollution exposures in childhood, adolescence and adulthood were associated with increased risk of asthma attacks, rhinitis and low lung function in adulthood. Greenness was not associated with asthma or rhinitis, but was a risk factor for low lung function. © 2020 The Authors
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8.
  • Triebner, Kai, et al. (författare)
  • Exogenous female sex steroids may reduce lung ageing after menopause : A 20-year follow-up study of a general population sample (ECRHS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Maturitas. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0378-5122 .- 1873-4111. ; 120, s. 29-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Menopause involves hypoestrogenism, which is associated with numerous detrimental effects, including on respiratory health. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often used to improve symptoms of menopause. The effects of HRT on lung function decline, hence lung ageing, have not yet been investigated despite the recognized effects of HRT on other health outcomes. Study design: The population-based multi-centre European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided complete data for 275 oral HRT users at two time points, who were matched with 383 nonusers and analysed with a two-level linear mixed effects regression model. Main outcome measures: We studied whether HRT use was associated with the annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Results: Lung function of women using oral HRT for more than five years declined less rapidly than that of nonusers. The adjusted difference in FVC decline was 5.6 mL/y (95%CI: 1.8 to 9.3, p = 0.01) for women who had taken HRT for six to ten years and 8.9 mL/y (3.5 to 14.2, p = 0.003) for those who had taken it for more than ten years. The adjusted difference in FEV1 decline was 4.4 mL/y (0.9 to 8.0, p = 0.02) with treatment from six to ten years and 5.3 mL/y (0.4 to 10.2, p = 0.048) with treatment for over ten years. Conclusions: In this longitudinal population-based study, the decline in lung function was less rapid in women who used HRT, following a dose-response pattern, and consistent when adjusting for potential confounding factors. This may signify that female sex hormones are of importance for lung ageing.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 57
  • [1]23456Nästa

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