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1.
  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risk following organ transplantation : a nationwide cohort study in Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 89:7, s. 1221-1227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who underwent transplantation of kidney, liver or other organs during 1970-1997 in Sweden was conducted. Complete follow-up was accomplished through linkage to nationwide databases. We used comparisons with the entire Swedish population to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and Poisson regression for multivariate internal analyses of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, we observed 692 incident first cancers vs 171 expected (SIR 4.0; 95% CI 3.7-4.4). We confirmed marked excesses of nonmelanoma skin cancer (SIR 56.2; 95% CI 49.8-63.2), lip cancer (SIR 53.3; 95% CI 38.0-72.5) and of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (SIR 6.0; 95% CI 4.4-8.0). Compared with patients who underwent kidney transplantation, those who received other organs were at substantially higher risk of NHL (RR 8.4; 95% CI 4.3-16). Besides, we found, significantly, about 20-fold excess risk of cancer of the vulva and vagina, 10-fold of anal cancer, and five-fold of oral cavity and kidney cancer, as well as two- to four-fold excesses of cancer in the oesophagus, stomach, large bowel, urinary bladder, lung and thyroid gland. In conclusion, organ transplantation entails a persistent, about four-fold increased overall cancer risk. The complex pattern of excess risk at many sites challenges current understanding of oncogenic infections that might become activated by immunologic alterations.
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2.
  • Lambe, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Childbearing and the risk of Hodgkin's disease
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 7:9, s. 831-834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The causes of Hodgkin's disease remain incompletely known, but a higher incidence in men than in women has prompted an interest in the role of female sex hormones and reproductive history. Available epidemiological data are, however, contradictory. We analyzed possible associations between parity, age at first birth, and the risk of developing Hodgkin's disease by a linkage between the Swedish Cancer Register and a nationwide Fertility Register. Among women born between 1925 and 1972, 917 cases with Hodgkin's disease and concomitant fertility information were identified. For each case patient, five age-matched controls were randomly selected among women in the Fertility Register. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of Hodgkin's disease associated with a birth. We found a slightly and nonsignificantly reduced risk of Hodgkin's disease in ever-parous compared with nulliparous women. Among parous women, the number of children was unrelated to risk, whereas there was some evidence of an increased risk with late age at first birth in women under age 45 at diagnosis. No clear temporal relations between childbearing and subsequent risk were discernible in any parity or age group. Although uncontrolled confounding might have affected our results, they do not indicate that hormonal or immunological changes associated with childbearing play a role in the development of Hodgkin's disease.
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3.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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4.
  • Smedby, Karin Ekström, et al. (författare)
  • Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:3, s. 199-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant lymphomas has been increasing rapidly, but the causes of these malignancies remain poorly understood. One hypothesis holds that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases lymphoma risk. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden. METHODS: A total of 3740 patients diagnosed between October 1, 1999, and August 30, 2002, with incident malignant lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3187 population controls provided detailed information on history of UV exposure and skin cancer and information on other possible risk factors for lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed consistent, statistically significant negative associations between various measures of UV light exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A high frequency of sun bathing and sunburns at age 20 years and 5-10 years before the interview and sun vacations abroad were associated with 30%-40% reduced risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (e.g., for sunbathing four times a week or more at age 20 versus never sunbathing, OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.9; for two or more sunburns a year at age 20 versus no sunburns, OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.8). These inverse associations increased in strength with increasing levels of exposure (all P(trend)< or =.01). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed for Hodgkin lymphoma. There were no clear differences among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, although associations were stronger for B-cell than for T-cell lymphomas. A history of skin cancer was associated with a doubling in risks of both non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: A history of high UV exposure was associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The positive association between skin cancer and malignant lymphomas is, therefore, unlikely to be mediated by UV exposure.
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5.
  • Ahlberg, Mats Steinholtz, et al. (författare)
  • PCASTt/SPCG-17-A randomised trial of active surveillance in prostate cancer: Rationale and design
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2044-6055. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Overtreatment of localised prostate cancer is substantial despite increased use of active surveillance. No randomised trials help define how to monitor patients or when to initiate treatment with curative intent. Methods and analysis A randomised, multicentre, intervention trial designed to evaluate the safety of an MRI-based active surveillance protocol, with standardised triggers for repeated biopsies and radical treatment. The aim is to reduce overtreatment of prostate cancer. 2000 men will be randomly allocated to either surveillance according to current practice or to standardised triggers at centres in Sweden, Norway, Finland and the UK. Men diagnosed in the past 12 months with prostate cancer, ≤T2a, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <15 ng/mL, PSA density ≤0.2 ng/mL/cc, any International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade 1 are eligible. Men with ISUP grade 2 in <30% of cores on systematic biopsy and <10 mm cancer in one core on systematic or targeted biopsy are also eligible. Men diagnosed on systematic biopsy should have an MRI and targeted biopsies against Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System V.2 3-5 lesions before inclusion. Identical follow-up in the two study arms: biannual PSA testing, yearly clinical examination and MRI every second year. In the experimental arm, standardised triggers based on MRI and PSA density elicit repeated biopsies. MRI and histopathological progression trigger radical treatment. Primary outcome measure is progression-free survival. Secondary outcome measures are cumulative incidence of metastatic disease, treatments with curative intent, pT3-4 at radical prostatectomy, switch to watchful waiting, prostate cancer mortality and quality of life. Inclusion started in October 2016 and in October 2018; 275 patients have been enrolled. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained in each participating country. Results for the primary and secondary outcome measures will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02914873.
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6.
  • Almqvist, C, et al. (författare)
  • LifeGene-a large prospective population-based study of global relevance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 26:1, s. 67-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studying gene-environment interactions requires that the amount and quality of the lifestyle data is comparable to what is available for the corresponding genomic data. Sweden has several crucial prerequisites for comprehensive longitudinal biomedical research, such as the personal identity number, the universally available national health care system, continuously updated population and health registries and a scientifically motivated population. LifeGene builds on these strengths to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical applications with particular attention to populations, through a unique design in a research-friendly setting. LifeGene is designed both as a prospective cohort study and an infrastructure with repeated contacts of study participants approximately every 5 years. Index persons aged 18-45 years old will be recruited and invited to include their household members (partner and any children). A comprehensive questionnaire addressing cutting-edge research questions will be administered through the web with short follow-ups annually. Biosamples and physical measurements will also be collected at baseline, and re-administered every 5 years thereafter. Event-based sampling will be a key feature of LifeGene. The household-based design will give the opportunity to involve young couples prior to and during pregnancy, allowing for the first study of children born into cohort with complete pre-and perinatal data from both the mother and father. Questions and sampling schemes will be tailored to the participants' age and life events. The target of LifeGene is to enrol 500,000 Swedes and follow them longitudinally for at least 20 years.
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7.
  • Bill-Axelson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Radical Prostatectomy or Watchful Waiting in Prostate Cancer-29-Year Follow-up
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachussetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 379:24, s. 2319-2329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Radical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer, but evidence from randomized trials with long-term followup is sparse. METHODS We randomly assigned 695 men with localized prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy from October 1989 through February 1999 and collected follow-up data through 2017. Cumulative incidence and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for death from any cause, death from prostate cancer, and metastasis were estimated in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses, and numbers of years of life gained were estimated. We evaluated the prognostic value of histopathological measures with a Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS By December 31, 2017, a total of 261 of the 347 men in the radical-prostatectomy group and 292 of the 348 men in the watchful-waiting group had died; 71 deaths in the radical-prostatectomy group and 110 in the watchful-waiting group were due to prostate cancer (relative risk, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.74; P<0.001; absolute difference in risk, 11.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 5.2 to 18.2). The number needed to treat to avert one death from any cause was 8.4. At 23 years, a mean of 2.9 extra years of life were gained with radical prostatectomy. Among the men who underwent radical prostatectomy, extracapsular extension was associated with a risk of death from prostate cancer that was 5 times as high as that among men without extracapsular extension, and a Gleason score higher than 7 was associated with a risk that was 10 times as high as that with a score of 6 or lower (scores range from 2 to 10, with higher scores indicating more aggressive cancer). CONCLUSIONS Men with clinically detected, localized prostate cancer and a long life expectancy benefited from radical prostatectomy, with a mean of 2.9 years of life gained. A high Gleason score and the presence of extracapsular extension in the radical prostatectomy specimens were highly predictive of death from prostate cancer.
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8.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in localized prostate cancer : the Scandinavian prostate cancer group-4 randomized trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 100:16, s. 1144-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The benefit of radical prostatectomy in patients with early prostate cancer has been assessed in only one randomized trial. In 2005, we reported that radical prostatectomy improved prostate cancer survival compared with watchful waiting after a median of 8.2 years of follow-up. We now report results after 3 more years of follow-up. METHODS: From October 1, 1989, through February 28, 1999, 695 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy (n = 347) or watchful waiting (n = 348). Follow-up was complete through December 31, 2006, with histopathologic review and blinded evaluation of causes of death. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up (range = 3 weeks to 17.2 years), 137 men in the surgery group and 156 in the watchful waiting group died (P = .09). For 47 of the 347 men (13.5%) who were randomly assigned to surgery and 68 of the 348 men (19.5%) who were not, death was due to prostate cancer. The difference in cumulative incidence of death due to prostate cancer remained stable after about 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 12.5% of the surgery group and 17.9% of the watchful waiting group had died of prostate cancer (difference = 5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 11.1%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.45 to 0.94; P = .03). The difference in cumulative incidence of distant metastases did not increase beyond 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 19.3% of men in the surgery group and 26% of men in the watchful waiting group had been diagnosed with distant metastases (difference = 6.7%, 95% CI = 0.2 to 13.2%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47 to 0.88; P = .006). Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy, those with extracapsular tumor growth had 14 times the risk of prostate cancer death as those without it (RR = 14.2, 95% CI = 3.3 to 61.8; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Radical prostatectomy reduces prostate cancer mortality and risk of metastases with little or no further increase in benefit 10 or more years after surgery. 
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9.
  • Chang, E T, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol drinking and risk of localized versus advanced and sporadic versus familial prostate cancer in Sweden
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci Oncol, Umea, Sweden. : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 16:3, s. 275-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is unknown whether the association of alcohol consumption with prostate cancer risk varies between localized and advanced cases, or between sporadic and familial cases. Methods: We assessed recent alcohol drinking in a population-based case-control study of Swedish men, including 1499 cases and 1130 controls. Drinking status and average volume, frequency, and type of alcohol consumed were evaluated. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk. Results: Prostate cancer cases were more likely than controls to be current or former, rather than never, drinkers. However, there was no association between recent total alcohol, beer, wine, and liquor consumption and risk of overall prostate cancer, nor advanced, sporadic, or familial prostate cancer. The OR for risk of overall disease among men who drank more than 135 g of total alcohol per week versus non-drinkers was 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9, 1.5), p(trend)=0.12. There was a marginal positive association between alcohol intake and risk of localized disease. Conclusions: We detected no association between recent alcohol consumption and risk of advanced, sporadic, or familial prostate cancer, and a borderline positive association with localized disease.
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10.
  • Chang, Ellen T., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and risk of malignant lymphoma in Scandinavian men and women
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:3, s. 210-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and prevalence of obesity are increasing globally. A suggested positive association between obesity and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has prompted us to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk of malignant lymphoma subtypes in a population-based case-control study. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 3055 case patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 618 case patients with Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed between October 1, 1999, and August 30, 2002, and 3187 population-based control subjects. The interviews assessed current height, normal adult weight, and other possible risk factors. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of lymphoma were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: BMI was not associated with risk of overall non-Hodgkin lymphoma or of Hodgkin lymphoma (for example, comparing the highly obese group [BMI > or =35.0 kg/m2] with the normal-weight group [BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2], OR for risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.3; P(trend) across all categories of BMI = .27). BMI was also not associated with risk of any non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype evaluated, although there was some evidence of a positive association with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (for example, comparing the highly obese group with the normal-weight group, OR for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.4; P(trend) =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Excess weight does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of malignant lymphoma in general, or with a risk of most major lymphoma subtypes. Hence, the growing incidence of obesity is unlikely to be an important contributor to the increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma worldwide.
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