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1.
  • Serenius, F., et al. (författare)
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Extremely Preterm Infants 6.5 Years After Active Perinatal Care in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Jama Pediatrics. - Chicago : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6203 .- 2168-6211. ; 170:10, s. 954-963
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Active perinatal care increases the rate of survival of extremely preterm infants, but there are concerns that improved survival might increase the rate of disabled survivors. OBJECTIVE To determine the neurodevelopmental outcomes of a national cohort of children 6.5 years of age who had been born extremely preterm (<27 weeks' gestational age) in Sweden. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Population-based prospective cohort study of consecutively born extremely preterm infants. All of these infants were born in Sweden during the period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007. Of 707 live-born extremely preterm infants, 486 (68.7%) survived to 6.5 years of age. These children were assessed and compared with matched controls who had been born at term. Comparison estimates were adjusted for demographic differences. Assessments ended in February 2014, and analysis started thereafter. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cognitive ability was measured with the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), and the mean (SD) scores of the children who had been born extremely preterm were compared with those of the controls. Clinical examinations and parental questionnaires were used for diagnosis of cerebral palsy, hearing and vision impairments, and cognition for the children who were not assessed with the WISC-IV. RESULTS Of 486 eligible infants who were born extremely preterm, 441 (90.7%) were assessed at 6.5 years of age (59 by medical record review only) alongside 371 controls. The adjusted mean (SD) full-scale WISC-IV score was 14.2 (95% CI, 12.1-16.3) points lower for children who had been born extremely preterm than for controls. Cognitive disability was moderate for 18.8% of extremely preterm children and 2.2% of controls (P < .001), and it was severe for 11.1% of extremely preterm children and 0.3% of controls (P < .001). Cerebral palsy was observed in 9.5% of extremely preterm children and 0.0% of controls (P < .001), blindness was observed in 2.0% of extremely preterm children and 0.0% of controls (P < .001), and hearing impairment was observed in 2.1% of extremely preterm children and 0.5% of controls (P = .07). Overall, 36.1%(95% CI, 31.7%-40.6%) of extremely preterm children had no disability, 30.4%(95% CI 26.3%-34.8%) had mild disability, 20.2%(95% CI, 16.6%-24.2%) had moderate disability, and 13.4%(95% CI, 10.5%-16.9%) had severe disability. For extremely preterm children, moderate or severe overall disability decreased with gestational age at birth (adjusted odds ratio per week, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.54-0.79]; P < .001) and increased from 26.6% to 33.5%(P = .01) for children assessed both at 2.5 and 6.5 years. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Of the 441 extremely preterm infants who had received active perinatal care, 293 (66.4%) had no or mild disability at 6.5 years; of the 371 controls, 11 (3.0%) had moderate or severe disability. Disability rates at 6.5 years increased relative to the rates at 2.5 years. Results are relevant for health care professionals and planners, and for clinicians counseling families facing extremely preterm births.
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2.
  • Bolk, J., et al. (författare)
  • Developmental Coordination Disorder and Its Association With Developmental Comorbidities at 6.5 Years in Apparently Healthy Children Born Extremely Preterm
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Jama Pediatrics. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6203 .- 2168-6211. ; 172:8, s. 765-774
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE There are concerns that apparently healthy extremely preterm children face a risk of developing motor impairments, such as developmental coordination disorder. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder and associated comorbidities in a national cohort of apparently healthy children born at 22 to 26 gestational weeks, compared alongside term-born peers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective, population-based cohort study included all children who were consecutively born at 22 to 26 gestational weeks in Sweden from April 1, 2004, through March 31, 2007. At 6.5 years, 441 preterm children were evaluated alongside 371 controls. A total of 275 preterm children (62.4%) and 359 term-born children (96.8%) did not have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Motor assessments were completed for 229 of 275 preterm children (83.3%) and 344 of 359 (95.8%) term-born children, who composed the final study sample. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Developmental coordination disorder was defined as a score of the fifth percentile or lower on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition scale, using control group scores. Assessment tools included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales, the Five to Fifteen questionnaire, and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 229 extremely preterm children and 344 term-born controls who underwent motor assessments, 115 (50.2%) and 194 (56.4%) were boys, respectively. Developmental coordination disorder was present in 85 of 229 (37.1%) preterm children and in 19 of 344 controls (5.5%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.92; 99% CI, 3.69-17.20). When preterm children with developmental coordination disorder were compared with term-born peers, the risk was increased for total behavioral problems, internalizing, externalizing, attentional problems, hyperactivity, perceptual problems, executive dysfunction, and poor social skills, with adjusted ORs varying from 2.66 (99% CI, 1.09-6.48) for time concepts to 9.06 (99% CI, 3.60-22.8) for attentional problems (all P < .01). When preterm children with and without developmental coordination disorder were compared, preterm children with developmental coordination disorder had more behavioral problems; the adjusted OR for total behavioral problems was 2.71 (99% CI, 1.15-6.37); for externalizing problems, 2.80 (99% CI, 1.10-7.12); for inattention, 3.38 (99% CI, 1.39-8.18); and for combined attention/hyperactivity problems, 3.68 (99% CI, 1.47-9.16) (all P < .01). Parents underestimated the children's motor problems and only a few of the children had received psychological care or physiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Children who were born extremely preterm faced a high risk for developmental coordination disorder with associated comorbidities. Our findings support the importance of a structured follow-up of motor function, behavior, and cognition. (C) 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Ivarsson, Anneli, et al. (författare)
  • Healing the health system after civil unrest
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : Co-Action Publishing. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 8, s. 1-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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