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Sökning: WFRF:(Adolfsson Karl)

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1.
  • Van Hemelrijck, Mieke, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality following Hip Fracture in Men with Prostate Cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PLoS. - 1932-6203. ; 8:9, s. e74492-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality and are a known adverse effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa). It was our aim to evaluate how mortality after hip fracture is modified by PCa and ADT.Methods: PCa dataBase Sweden (PCBaSe 2.0) is based on the National PCa Register and also contains age and county-matched PCa-free men. We selected all men (n = 14,205) who had been hospitalized with a hip fracture between 2006 and 2010; 2,300 men had a prior PCa diagnosis of whom 1,518 (66%) were on ADT prior to date of fracture. Risk of death was estimated with cumulative incidence and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to make comparisons with the entire PCa population and the general population.Results: Cumulative incidences indicated that there was a higher risk of death following a hip fracture for PCa men on ADT than for PCa men not on ADT or PCa-free men, particularly in the first year. The SMRs showed that PCa men on ADT with a hip fracture were 2.44 times more likely to die than the comparison cohort of all PCa men (95% CI: 2.29-2.60). This risk was especially increased during the first month (5.64 (95% CI: 4.16-7.48)). In absolute terms, hip fractures were associated with 20 additional deaths per 1,000 person-years in PCa men not on ADT, but 30 additional deaths per 1,000 person-years for PCa men on ADT, compared to all PCa men.Conclusion: Hip fractures are associated with higher all-cause mortality in PCa men on ADT than in PCa men not on ADT or PCa-free men, especially within the first three months.
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2.
  • Axelsson, Susanna, et al. (författare)
  • Disseminating evidence from health technology assessment: the case of tobacco prevention
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Public Health Sciences. - 0266-4623.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to investigate the awareness among dentists and dental hygienists of evidence-based reports and guidelines on tobacco cessation activities and the impact these publications had on clinical practice. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to dental hygienists and dentists in Stockholm County, Sweden, and the results were compared with a previous investigation. RESULTS: Among the respondents, awareness of a popular science version of a systematic review on smoking and its effect on oral health was reported by 90 percent of the hygienists and 66 percent of the dentists. The information was used in clinical work by 34 percent of the dentists and 54 percent of the hygienists. Reported changes in patterns of practice were more frequent recommendations to use nicotine replacement therapy and a more widespread use of setting quit dates. Approximately one quarter of the dental professionals reported that they had increased tobacco cessation consultation because of the results from the reports. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in patterns of practice were observed after dissemination of evidence-based information on tobacco cessation. Methods that were proven to be effective in the evidence-based report such as discussing quit dates and recommending nicotine replacement therapy were more commonly used after the publication of the report. Short, popular versions of extensive systematic reviews seem to be useful for implementing evidence-based knowledge and changing clinical practice.
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3.
  • Adolfsson, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescent Nanowire Heterostructures as a Versatile Tool for Biology Applications
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nano Letters. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6992. ; 13:10, s. 4728-4732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanowires are increasingly used in biology, as sensors, as injection devices, and us model systems for toxicity studies. Currently, in situ visualization of nanowires in biological media is done using organic dyes, which a;:e prone to photobleaching, or using microscopy methods which either yield poor resolution or require a sophisticated setup. Here we show that inherently fluorescent nanowire axial heterostructnies c:an be used to localize and identify nanowires in cells and tissue; By synthesizing GaP GaInP nanowire heterostructures, with nonfluorescent GaP segments and fluorescent GaInP segments, we created a barcode labeling system enabling the distinction of the nanowire morphological and chemical properties using fluorescence microscopy. The GaInP photoluminescence stability, combined with the fact that the nanowires can be coated with different materials while retaining their fluorescence, make these nanowires promising tools for biological and nanotoxicological studies.
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5.
  • Adolfsson, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nanotechnology. - : IOP Publishing. - 0957-4484. ; 24:28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III-V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate.
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6.
  • Alaerts, Maaike, et al. (författare)
  • Detailed analysis of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) shows no association with bipolar disorder in the Northern Swedish population
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - 1552-4841 .- 1552-485X. ; 150B:4, s. 585-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Through active reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic neurons, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays an important role in regulating serotonin concentrations in the brain, and it is the site of binding for tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Therefore it has been hypothesized that this transporter is involved in the etiology of bipolar (BP) disorder. Inconsistent association study results for the SLC6A4 gene encoding 5-HTT reported in literature emphasize the need for more systematic and detailed analyses of this candidate gene. We performed an extensive analysis of SLC6A4 on DNA of 254 BPI patients and 364 control individuals from a Northern Swedish isolated population. This analysis consisted of a HapMap LD-based association study including three widely investigated polymorphisms (5-HTTVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and rs3813034), a copy-number variation (CNV) analysis and a mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence and the 3'-UTR of SLC6A4. No single marker showed statistically significant association with BPI, nor did any of the haplotypes. In the mutation analysis 13 novel variants were detected, including 2 amino acid substitutions M389V and 1587L, but these are probably not implicated in risk for BP. No deletions or duplications were detected in the CNV analysis. We conclude that variation in the SLC6A4 gene or its regulatory regions does not contribute to the susceptibility for BP disorder in the Northern Swedish population.
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7.
  • Alaerts, Maaike, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of association of an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the G protein-coupled receptor 50 with bipolar disorder in a Northern Swedish population
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Psychiatric Genetics. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0955-8829 .- 1473-5873. ; 16:6, s. 235-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GPR50 is a G protein-coupled receptor, located on Xq28 and related to the melatonin receptor family. It is suggested as a functional and positional candidate gene for bipolar disorder (BP). Recently an insertion/deletion polymorphism in GPR50, Delta502-505, was found to be associated with BP in a Scottish association sample (P=0.007). When the analysis was restricted to female subjects, the association increased in significance (P=0.00023). We attempted to replicate this finding in a Northern Swedish association sample, but no significant association was detected (P=0.7, women only: P=0.65).
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8.
  • Alaerts, Maaike, et al. (författare)
  • Support for NRG1 as a Susceptibility Factor for Schizophrenia in a Northern Swedish Isolated Population
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of General Psychiatry. - : American Medical Association. - 0003-990X .- 1538-3636. ; 66:8, s. 828-837
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a growth factor involved in neurodevelopment, myelination, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and synaptic plasticity, first joined the list of candidate genes for schizophrenia when a 7-marker haplotype at the 5' end of the gene (Hap(ICE)) was shown to be associated with the disorder in the Icelandic population. Since then, more genetic and functional evidence has emerged, which supports a role for NRG1 in the development of schizophrenia.Objective: To determine the contribution of NRG1 to susceptibility for schizophrenia in a northern Swedish isolated population.Design: Detailed linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based patient- control association study. This is the first study to type and analyze the 7 Hap(ICE) markers and a set of 32 HapMap tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represents variants with a minor allele frequency of at least 1% and fully characterizes the LD structure of the 5' part of NRG1.Setting: Outpatient and inpatient hospitals.Participants: A total of 486 unrelated patients with schizophrenia and 514 unrelated control individuals recruited from a northern Swedish isolated population.Main Outcome Measures: Association between markers and disease.Results: Analysis of the Hap(ICE) markers showed the association of a 7-marker and 2-microsatellite haplotype, different from the haplotypes associated in the Icelandic population and overrepresented in northern Swedish control individuals. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis that included all 37 genotyped SNPs was performed by investigating haplotypic association, dependent and independent of LD block structure. We found significant association with 5 SNPs located in the second intron of NRG1 (.007 <= P <= .04). Also, 2-, 3-, and 4-SNP windows that comprise these SNPs were associated (P < 3 x 10(-4)). One protective haplotype (0% vs 1.8%; P < 5 x 10(-5)) and 1 disease risk-causing haplotype (40.4% vs 34.9%, P=.02) were defined.Conclusion: The NRG1 gene contributes to the susceptibility for schizophrenia in the northern Swedish population.
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9.
  • Beech, Jason P., et al. (författare)
  • Cell morphology and deformability in deterministic lateral displacement devices
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences 2011, MicroTAS 2011. - 9781618395955 ; 2, s. 1355-1357
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD) devices have been used to separate particles based on size [1] and shape [2]. Here we show how DLD devices can also be used to separate particles based on their ability to deform under shear forces. Varying experimental conditions allows us to vary the relative contributions of size, morphology and deformability. The ability to distinguish between cells based on deformability with high resolution and throughput, in cheap and simple devices, could find highly interesting and relevant applications, for example in the detection of circulating tumor cells or malaria-infected blood cells.
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10.
  • Beech, Jason P., et al. (författare)
  • Sample preparation for single-cell whole chromosome analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2012. - : Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society. - 9780979806452 ; , s. 998-999
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work we present an integrated system for whole chromosome analysis of single bacterium. Using whole genome barcoding techniques, which offer direct and rapid microscopic visualization of the entire genome in one field-of-view, we aim to rapidly identify individual bacterium. We are developing our device to achieve the crucial, and difficult process of isolating a bacterium, removing the DNA in one piece and transferring it to a nano-channel for visualisation. In order to achieve control over the bacteria we encapsulate them in agarose, using flow focusing. The encapsulated bacteria can then be transported in microchannels to proximity with the nanochannels and then chemically lysis can be performed. Following lysis the intact genome can be extracted and transferred to the meandering nanochannel for analysis. We believe this device holds the potential to significantly decrease analysis times for single cell, whole genome analysis with the potential of opening up for automated, high-throughput genome analysis in microfluidic systems.
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