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1.
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2.
  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (<em>n</em> ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.</p>
3.
  • Degerman, Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 55, s. 167-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.</p>
4.
  • Ekström, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 65:6, s. 1238-1243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives: To determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period. Design: Prospective cohort study. SettingBetula Study, Umea, Sweden. ParticipantsA population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774). Measurements: Olfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade. Results: Within the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P &lt; .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion: Poor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia.</p>
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5.
  • Ekström, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 65:6, s. 1238-1243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives</p><p>To determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period.</p><p>Design</p><p>Prospective cohort study.</p><p>Setting</p><p>Betula Study, Umeå, Sweden.</p><p>Participants</p><p>A population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774).</p><p>Measurements</p><p>Olfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade.</p><p>Results</p><p>Within the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P &lt; .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Poor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia.</p>
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6.
  • Figueira, Joao, et al. (författare)
  • NMR analysis of the human saliva metabolome distinguishes dementia patients from matched controls
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Biosystems. - 1742-206X .- 1742-2051. ; 12:8, s. 2562-2571
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Saliva is a biofluid that is sensitive to metabolic changes and is straightforward to collect in a non-invasive manner, but it is seldom used for metabolite analysis when studying neurodegenerative disorders. We present a procedure for both an untargeted and targeted analysis of the saliva metabolome in which nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used in combination with multivariate data analysis. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated on saliva samples selected from the 25 year prospective Betula study, including samples from dementia subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia at the time of sampling or who developed it by the next sampling/assessment occasion five years later, and age-, gender-, and education-matched control individuals without dementia. Statistically significant multivariate models were obtained that separated patients with dementia from controls and revealed seven discriminatory metabolites. Dementia patients showed significantly increased concentrations of acetic acid (fold change (fc) = 1.25, p = 2 x 10(-5)), histamine (fc = 1.26, p = 0.019), and propionate (fc = 1.35, p = 0.002), while significantly decreased levels were observed for dimethyl sulfone (fc = 0.81, p = 0.005), glycerol (fc = 0.79, p = 0.04), taurine (fc = 0.70, p = 0.007), and succinate (fc = 0.62, p = 0.008). Histamine, succinate, and taurine are known to be important in AD, and acetic acid and glycerol are involved in related pathways. Dimethyl sulfone and propionate originate from the diet and bacterial flora and might reflect poorer periodontal status in the dementia patients. For these seven metabolites, a weak but statistically significant pre-diagnostic value was observed. Taken together, we present a robust and general NMR analysis approach for studying the saliva metabolome that has potential use for screening and early detection of dementia.</p>
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7.
  • Figueira, Joao, et al. (författare)
  • Serum Metabolite Markers of Dementia Through Quantitative NMR Analysis : The Importance of Threonine-Linked Metabolic Pathways
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 69:3, s. 763-774
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>There is a great need for diagnostic biomarkers of impending dementia. Metabolite markers in blood have been investigated in several studies, but inconclusive findings encourage further investigation, particularly in the pre-diagnostic phase. In the present study, the serum metabolomes of 110 dementia or pre-diagnostic dementia individuals and 201 healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and education were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. 58 metabolites were quantified in each of the 311 samples. Individuals with dementia were discriminated from controls using a panel of seven metabolites, while the pre-diagnostic dementia subjects were distinguished from controls using a separate set of seven metabolites, where threonine was a common significant metabolite in both panels. Metabolite and pathway alterations specific for dementia and pre-diagnostic dementia were identified, in particular a disturbed threonine catabolism at the pre-diagnostic stage that extends to several threonine-linked pathways at the dementia stage.</p>
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8.
  • Gothefors, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Swedish clinical guidelines-Prevention and management of metabolic risk in patients with severe psychiatric disorders
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-4725. ; 64:5, s. 294-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals with severe psychiatric disorders are more likely than the population at large to develop metabolic derangements such as overweight and diabetes. Cardiovascular disease is also more frequently seen in this group. Contributing factors may include inappropriate diet or lack of physical activity, but antipsychotic medication may also play a role. Seven Swedish specialist medical societies have collaborated in formulating a set of concise clinically applicable guidelines-reproduced here in modified form-for the prevention and management of metabolic risk in this patient group. The importance of implementation is emphasized.
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9.
  • Hagg, S., et al. (författare)
  • Short telomere length is associated with impaired cognitive performance in European ancestry cohorts
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR) framework. Twelve European cohorts (N = 17 052; mean age = 59.2 +/- 8.8 years) provided results for associations between qPCR-measuredTL (T/S-ratio scale) and general cognitive function, mini-mental state exam (MMSE), processing speed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visuospatial functioning, memory and executive functioning (STROOP). In addition, a genetic risk score (GRS) for TL including seven known genetic variants for TL was calculated, and used in associations with cognitive traits as outcomes in all cohorts. Observational analyses showed that longer telomeres were associated with better scores on DSST (beta = 0.051 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.024, 0.077; P = 0.0002), and MMSE (beta = 0.025; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.047; P = 0.03), and faster STROOP (beta = -0.053; 95% CI: -0.087, -0.018; P = 0.003). Effects for DSST were stronger in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers (beta = 0.081; 95% CI: 0.045, 0.117; P = 1.0 x 10(-5)), whereas carriers performed better in STROOP (beta = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.140, -0.009; P = 0.03). Causal associations were found for STROOP only (beta = -0.598 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% CI: -1.125, -0.072; P = 0.026), with a larger effect in epsilon 4-carriers (beta = -0.699; 95% CI: -1.330, -0.069; P = 0.03). Two-sample replication analyses using CHARGE summary statistics showed causal effects between TL and general cognitive function and DSST, but not with STROOP. In conclusion, we suggest causal effects from longer TL on better cognitive performance, where APOE epsilon 4-carriers might be at differential risk.</p>
10.
  • Josefsson, Maria, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Memory profiles predict dementia over 23–28 years in normal but not successful aging
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics. - Cambridge University Press. - 1041-6102 .- 1741-203X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives: Prospective studies suggest that memory deficits are detectable decades before clinical symptoms of dementia emerge. However, individual differences in long-term memory trajectories prior to diagnosis need to be further elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate long-term dementia and mortality risk for individuals with different memory trajectory profiles in a well-characterized population-based sample.</p><p>Methods: 1062 adults (aged 45–80 years) who were non-demented at baseline were followed over 23–28 years. Dementia and mortality risk were studied for three previously classified episodic memory trajectory groups: maintained high performance (Maintainers; 26%), average decline (Averages; 64%), and accelerated decline (Decliners; 12%), using multistate modeling to characterize individuals’ transitions from an initial non-demented state, possibly to a state of dementia and/or death.</p><p>Results: The memory groups showed considerable intergroup variability in memory profiles, starting 10–15 years prior to dementia diagnosis, and prior to death. A strong relationship between memory trajectory group and dementia risk was found. Specifically, Decliners had more than a fourfold risk of developing dementia compared to Averages. In contrast, Maintainers had a 2.6 times decreased dementia risk compared to Averages, and in addition showed no detectable memory decline prior to dementia diagnosis. A similar pattern of association was found for the memory groups and mortality risk, although only among non-demented.</p><p>Conclusion: There was a strong relationship between accelerated memory decline and dementia, further supporting the prognostic value of memory decline. The intergroup differences, however, suggest that mechanisms involved in successful memory aging may delay symptom onset.</p>
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