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Sökning: WFRF:(Ahlgren C.)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 80
  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
  • Litaudon, X., et al. (författare)
  • 14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 1: Calibration and characterization of the neutron source
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 58:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In view of the planned DT operations at JET, a calibration of the JET neutron monitors at 14 MeV neutron energy is needed using a 14 MeV neutron generator deployed inside the vacuum vessel by the JET remote handling system. The target accuracy of this calibration is 10% as also required by ITER, where a precise neutron yield measurement is important, e.g. for tritium accountancy. To achieve this accuracy, the 14 MeV neutron generator selected as the calibration source has been fully characterised and calibrated prior to the in-vessel calibration of the JET monitors. This paper describes the measurements performed using different types of neutron detectors, spectrometers, calibrated long counters and activation foils which allowed us to obtain the neutron emission rate and the anisotropy of the neutron generator, i.e.The neutron flux and energy spectrum dependence on emission angle, and to derive the absolute emission rate in 4π sr. The use of high resolution diamond spectrometers made it possible to resolve the complex features of the neutron energy spectra resulting from the mixed D/T beam ions reacting with the D/T nuclei present in the neutron generator target. As the neutron generator is not a stable neutron source, several monitoring detectors were attached to it by means of an ad hoc mechanical structure to continuously monitor the neutron emission rate during the in-vessel calibration. These monitoring detectors, two diamond diodes and activation foils, have been calibrated in terms of neutrons/counts within ± 5% total uncertainty. A neutron source routine has been developed, able to produce the neutron spectra resulting from all possible reactions occurring with the D/T ions in the beam impinging on the Ti D/T target. The neutron energy spectra calculated by combining the source routine with a MCNP model of the neutron generator have been validated by the measurements. These numerical tools will be key in analysing the results from the in-vessel calibration and to derive the response of the JET neutron detectors to DT plasma neutrons starting from the response to the generator neutrons, and taking into account all the calibration circumstances.
  • Rieth, M., et al. (författare)
  • Review on the EFDA programme on tungsten materials technology and science
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials. - 0022-3115 .- 1873-4820. ; 417:1-3, s. 463-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All the recent DEMO design studies for helium cooled divertors utilize tungsten materials and alloys, mainly due to their high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, low erosion, and comparably low activation under neutron irradiation. The long-term objective of the EFDA fusion materials programme is to develop structural as well as armor materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for future divertor concepts. The programmatic roadmap is structured into four engineering research lines which comprise fabrication process development, structural material development, armor material optimization, and irradiation performance testing, which are complemented by a fundamental research programme on "Materials Science and Modeling". This paper presents the current research status of the EFDA experimental and testing investigations, and gives a detailed overview of the latest results on fabrication, joining, high heat flux testing, plasticity, modeling, and validation experiments.
  • Varnäs, K., et al. (författare)
  • Integrated strategy for use of positron emission tomography in nonhuman primates to confirm multitarget occupancy of novel psychotropic drugs : An example with AZD3676
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 358:3, s. 464-471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Positron emission tomography (PET) is widely applied in central nervous system (CNS) drug development for assessment of target engagement in vivo. As the majority of PET investigations have addressed drug interaction at a single binding site, findings of multitarget engagement have been less frequently reported and have often been inconsistent with results obtained in vitro. AZD3676 [N,N-dimethyl-7-(4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl)piperazin-1-yl) benzofuran-2-carboxamide] is a novel combined serotonin (5- hydroxytryptamine) 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist that was developed for the treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we evaluated the properties of AZD3676 as a CNS drug by combining in vitro and ex vivo radioligand binding techniques, behavioral pharmacology in rodents, and PET imaging in nonhuman primates. Target engagement in the nonhuman primate brain was assessed in PET studies by determination of drug-induced occupancy using receptorselective radioligands. AZD3676 showed preclinical properties consistent with CNS drug potential, including nanomolar receptor affinity and efficacy in rodent models of learning and memory. In PET studies of the monkey brain, AZD3676 inhibited radioligand binding in a dose-dependent manner with similar affinity at both receptors. The equally high affinity at 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors as determined in vivo was not predicted from corresponding estimates obtained in vitro, suggestingmore than 10-fold selectivity for 5-HT1A versus 5-HT1B receptors. These findings support the further integrated use of PET for confirmation of multitarget occupancy of CNS drugs. Importantly, earlier introduction of PET studies in nonhuman primates may reduce future development costs and the requirement for animal experiments in preclinical CNS drug development programs.
  • Ahmed, Kamran, et al. (författare)
  • Development of a standardised training curriculum for robotic surgery: a consensus statement from an international multidisciplinary group of experts
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - : Blackwell Science Ltd. - 1464-4096 .- 1464-410X. ; 116:1, s. 93-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To explore the views of experts about the development and validation of a robotic surgery training curriculum, and how this should be implemented. Materials and methods: An international expert panel was invited to a structured session for discussion. The study was of a mixed design, including qualitative and quantitative components based on focus group interviews during the European Association of Urology (EAU) Robotic Urology Section (ERUS) (2012), EAU (2013) and ERUS (2013) meetings. After introduction to the aims, principles and current status of the curriculum development, group responses were elicited. After content analysis of recorded interviews generated themes were discussed at the second meeting, where consensus was achieved on each theme. This discussion also underwent content analysis, and was used to draft a curriculum proposal. At the third meeting, a quantitative questionnaire about this curriculum was disseminated to attendees to assess the level of agreement with the key points. Results: In all, 150 min (19 pages) of the focus group discussion was transcribed (21 316 words). Themes were agreed by two raters (median agreement kappa 0.89) and they included: need for a training curriculum (inter-rater agreement kappa 0.85); identification of learning needs (kappa 0.83); development of the curriculum contents (kappa 0.81); an overview of available curricula (kappa 0.79); settings for robotic surgery training ((kappa 0.89); assessment and training of trainers (kappa 0.92); requirements for certification and patient safety (kappa 0.83); and need for a universally standardised curriculum (kappa 0.78). A training curriculum was proposed based on the above discussions. Conclusion: This group proposes a multi-step curriculum for robotic training. Studies are in process to validate the effectiveness of the curriculum and to assess transfer of skills to the operating room.
  • Rieth, M., et al. (författare)
  • A brief summary of the progress on the EFDA tungsten materials program
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials. - 0022-3115 .- 1873-4820. ; 442:1-3, s. S173-S180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The long-term objective of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) fusion materials programme is to develop structural and armor materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for reactor concepts beyond the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The programmatic roadmap is structured into four engineering research lines which comprise fabrication process development, structural material development, armor material optimization, and irradiation performance testing, which are complemented by a fundamental research programme on "Materials Science and Modeling." This paper presents the current research status of the EFDA experimental and testing investigations, and gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication, joining, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modeling, and validation experiments.
  • Rieth, M., et al. (författare)
  • Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials. - 0022-3115 .- 1873-4820. ; 432:1-3, s. 482-500
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.
  • Ahlgren, B., et al. (författare)
  • Internet of Things for Smart Cities : Interoperability and Open Data
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 20:6, s. 52-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a promising technology for addressing societal challenges by connecting smart devices and leveraging Big Data analytics to create smart cities worldwide. As the IoT scales up, it's important to provide interoperability among different devices. Yet current simple standard protocols lack sufficient openness and interoperability. IoT for smart cities needs to guarantee the accessibility of open data and cloud services to allow industries and citizens to develop new services and applications. Here, the authors provide a case study of the GreenIoT platform in Uppsala, Sweden, to demonstrate the idea of interoperability and open data for smart cities.
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