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1.
  • Borch, K., et al. (författare)
  • Gastric carcinoids: biologic behavior and prognosis after differentiated treatment in relation to type
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Annals of surgery. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0003-4932 .- 1528-1140. ; 242:1, s. 64-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. METHODS: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. RESULTS: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. CONCLUSION: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids.
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2.
  • Hagbom, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Rotavirus Stimulates Release of Serotonin (5-HT) from Human Enterochromaffin Cells and Activates Brain Structures Involved in Nausea and Vomiting.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS pathogens. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7374 .- 1553-7366. ; 7:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists.
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4.
  • Nilsson, Ola, 1957, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative studies on the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes, outcome of octreotide scintigraphy and response to octreotide treatment in patients with carcinoid tumours.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 77:4, s. 632-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have compared the expression of somatostatin receptor (sstr) subtypes with the outcome of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and the effect of somatostatin receptor activation in patients with disseminated carcinoid tumours. Tumour tissues from nine patients with midgut carcinoids (ileal) and three patients with foregut carcinoids (gastric, thymic) were analysed using Northern blotting. Expression of somatostatin receptors was demonstrated in all tumours (12 out of 12), with all five receptor subtypes present in 9 out of 12 tumours. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using [111In]DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide visualized tumours in all patients (12 out of 12). The 111In activity concentrations in tumour tissue (T) and blood (B) were determined in three tumours 1-7 days after injection of the radionuclide. The T/B 111In activity concentration ratios ranged between 32 and 651. Clinically, treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide resulted in marked symptom relief accompanied by a significant reduction in tumour markers, for example urinary-5-HIAA levels (28-71% reduction). Incubation of midgut carcinoid tumours in primary culture with octreotide (10 microM) resulted in a reduction in spontaneously secreted serotonin (45-71% reduction) and 5-HIAA (41-94% reduction). The results demonstrate that carcinoid tumours possess multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes and that somatostatin analogues such as octreotide, which preferentially bind to somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and 5, can be used in the diagnosis and medical treatment of these tumours. In the future, novel somatostatin analogues with subtype specific receptor profiles may prove to be of value for individualizing the treatment of disseminated carcinoid tumour disease.
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6.
  • Swärd, Christina, 1967, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]-octreotate and [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]-octreotide for receptor-mediated radiation therapy of the xenografted human midgut carcinoid tumor GOT1.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals. - 1084-9785 .- 1557-8852. ; 23:1, s. 114-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare the tumor uptake versus time and the tumor response in nude mice transplanted with a human midgut carcinoid (GOT1), when treated with either [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotide or [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate and to evaluate if plasma chromogranin A (P-CgA) was a reliable marker of tumor response. The tumor uptake and retention of activity of a single intravenous (i.v.) dose (15 MBq) of [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate or [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotide were compared in nude mice xenografted with GOT1. The activity concentration 24 hours after injection was significantly higher in animals given [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate versus [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotide (16%+/-1.4% of injected activity per gram [%IA/g] vs. 8.1%+/-2.1% IA/g, mean +/- standard error of the mean) (p=0.00061). The mean absorbed dose was higher in animals given [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate (46+/-4.3 vs. 17 +/- 3.4 Gy). The reduction of tumor volume was accordingly more prominent in animals given [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate than in animals given [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotide (p=0.003). The mean tumor volume for animals given [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate was reduced to 3% of its initial value. P-CgA values were strongly correlated with tumor volume. Octreotate seems to be a more suitable somatostatin analog than octreotide for receptor-mediated radiation therapy. P-CgA is a simple, accurate method for the estimation of tumor response in this animal model.
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7.
  • Westberg, G, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of prognosis by echocardiography in patients with midgut carcinoid syndrome.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The British journal of surgery. - 0007-1323. ; 88:6, s. 865-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between malignant midgut carcinoid tumours and right-sided cardiac lesions is well known, but the pathogenetic link between tumour secretion and valvular disease is still obscure. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the morphological and functional changes of valvular heart disease in a large patient series and to correlate these findings with hormonal secretion and prognosis.
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8.
  • Abrahamsson, Gun, et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian cyst formation in women of reproductive age receiving mitotane as part of the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma: Clinical and experimental observations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349. ; 99:10, s. 1297-1302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Mitotane is an adrenolytic drug that is used as an adjuvant to treat adrenocortical carcinoma. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical course and pathogenetic mechanisms underlying ovarian cyst formation in women of reproductive age diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma and being treated with mitotane as an adjuvant to surgery. Material and methods Five women presented with stage III-IV adrenocortical carcinoma and ovarian cyst formation during mitotane treatment. The clinical course of the disease was followed during and after treatment. The effects of mitotane on progesterone production and cell proliferation were studied in cultured human ovarian granulosa cells. Results Computed tomography and vaginal ultrasonography during mitotane treatment repeatedly demonstrated ovarian cysts of varying size without solid intralocular structures. Two women became amenorrheic during the treatment period. After mitotane cessation, the ovarian cysts disappeared and normal menstrual cycles resumed. One woman had an uncomplicated pregnancy two years after mitotane treatment. In one woman, who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy, histological analysis demonstrated benign ovarian cysts. Mitotane impeded the synthesis of progesterone, reduced the stimulatory effect of gonadotropins on progesterone formation, and reduced labeling with [H-3]thymidine in cultured granulosa cells. Conclusions Therapeutic concentrations of mitotane are associated with the formation of benign ovarian cysts and amenorrhea. Mitotane-induced suppression of ovarian steroidogenesis and impediment of the proliferative capacity of steroid-producing cells are suggested potential pathogenetic mechanisms underlying mitotane-induced ovarian dysfunction and cyst development. Mitotane treatment does not compromise future ovarian function.
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9.
  • Ahlman, Håkan, 1947, et al. (författare)
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma--diagnostic and therapeutical implications.
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: The European journal of surgery = Acta chirurgica. - 1102-4151. ; 159:3, s. 149-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate the results of treatment of a consecutive series of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma who presented during the six year period 1985 to 1991.
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10.
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