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2.
  • Rosqvist, F., et al. (författare)
  • Overeating Saturated Fat Promotes Fatty Liver and Ceramides Compared With Polyunsaturated Fat: A Randomized Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 104:12, s. 6207-6219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Saturated fatty acid (SFA) vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) may promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by yet unclear mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if overeating SFA- and PUFA-enriched diets lead to differential liver fat accumulation in overweight and obese humans. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized trial (LIPOGAIN-2). Overfeeding SFA vs PUFA for 8 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of caloric restriction. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women who are overweight or have obesity (n = 61). INTERVENTION: Muffins, high in either palm (SFA) or sunflower oil (PUFA), were added to the habitual diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lean tissue mass (not reported here). Secondary and exploratory outcomes included liver and ectopic fat depots. RESULTS: By design, body weight gain was similar in SFA (2.31 ± 1.38 kg) and PUFA (2.01 ± 1.90 kg) groups, P = 0.50. SFA markedly induced liver fat content (50% relative increase) along with liver enzymes and atherogenic serum lipids. In contrast, despite similar weight gain, PUFA did not increase liver fat or liver enzymes or cause any adverse effects on blood lipids. SFA had no differential effect on the accumulation of visceral fat, pancreas fat, or total body fat compared with PUFA. SFA consistently increased, whereas PUFA reduced circulating ceramides, changes that were moderately associated with liver fat changes and proposed markers of hepatic lipogenesis. The adverse metabolic effects of SFA were reversed by calorie restriction. CONCLUSIONS: SFA markedly induces liver fat and serum ceramides, whereas dietary PUFA prevents liver fat accumulation and reduces ceramides and hyperlipidemia during excess energy intake and weight gain in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2019 Endocrine Society.
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3.
  • Glimelius, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • U-CAN : a prospective longitudinal collection of biomaterials and clinical information from adult cancer patients in Sweden.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 57:2, s. 187-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Progress in cancer biomarker discovery is dependent on access to high-quality biological materials and high-resolution clinical data from the same cases. To overcome current limitations, a systematic prospective longitudinal sampling of multidisciplinary clinical data, blood and tissue from cancer patients was therefore initiated in 2010 by Uppsala and Umeå Universities and involving their corresponding University Hospitals, which are referral centers for one third of the Swedish population.Material and Methods: Patients with cancer of selected types who are treated at one of the participating hospitals are eligible for inclusion. The healthcare-integrated sampling scheme encompasses clinical data, questionnaires, blood, fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, diagnostic slides and radiology bioimaging data.Results: In this ongoing effort, 12,265 patients with brain tumors, breast cancers, colorectal cancers, gynecological cancers, hematological malignancies, lung cancers, neuroendocrine tumors or prostate cancers have been included until the end of 2016. From the 6914 patients included during the first five years, 98% were sampled for blood at diagnosis, 83% had paraffin-embedded and 58% had fresh frozen tissues collected. For Uppsala County, 55% of all cancer patients were included in the cohort.Conclusions: Close collaboration between participating hospitals and universities enabled prospective, longitudinal biobanking of blood and tissues and collection of multidisciplinary clinical data from cancer patients in the U-CAN cohort. Here, we summarize the first five years of operations, present U-CAN as a highly valuable cohort that will contribute to enhanced cancer research and describe the procedures to access samples and data.
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4.
  • Ciray, I., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-supported chemotherapy on MR imaging of normal red bone marrow in breast cancer patients with focal bone metastases
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiol. - 0284-1851 .- 1600-0455. - 0284-1851 (Print) 0284-1851 (Linking) ; 44:5, s. 472-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-supported chemotherapy on normal red bone marrow MR imaging in breast cancer patients with focal bone metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen breast cancer patients who were examined before and after chemotherapy with T1-weighted-SE and long echo-time inversion-recovery turbo-spin-echo (long TE IR-TSE) sequences in the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis were retrospectively studied. Nine of them received G-CSF therapy after the administration of each chemotherapy course. Of these 9 patients, the MR follow-ups were performed during G-CSF in 4 patients and after G-CSF therapy in 5 patients. Six patients did not receive G-CSF. Signal intensity (SI) changes in normal bone marrow were evaluated visually in all patients and quantitatively in 13 patients. RESULTS: In all 4 patients investigated during G-CSF therapy a diffuse, homogeneous SI increase on long TE IR-TSE was observed visually and quantitatively in initially normal bone marrow. This change obscured some focal lesions in 2 patients. No such SI change was visible after G-CSF therapy (p = 0.008) or in patients not receiving G-CSF. On T1-weighted images an SI decrease was found both during and after G-CSF therapy, but an increase occurred in patients not receiving G-CSF. CONCLUSION: G-CSF-supported chemotherapy can induce diffuse SI changes in normal red bone marrow on MR imaging. On long TE IR-TSE, the changes are visible during G-CSF treatment and can lead to misinterpretations in the response evaluation of bone metastases to therapy.
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6.
  • Wanhainen, A., et al. (författare)
  • The effect of ticagrelor on growth of small abdominal aortic aneurysms-a randomized controlled trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Research. - : Oxford University Press. - 0008-6363 .- 1755-3245. ; 116:2, s. 450-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To evaluate if ticagrelor, an effective platelet inhibitor without known non-responders, could inhibit growth of small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods and results: In this multi-centre randomized controlled trial, double-blinded for ticagrelor and placebo, acetylic salicylic acid naive patients with AAA and with a maximum aortic diameter 35-49mm were included. The primary outcome was mean reduction in log-transformed AAA volume growth rate (%) measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 12months compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes include AAA-diameter growth rate and intraluminal thrombus (ILT) volume enlargement rate. A total of 144 patients from eight Swedish centres were randomized (72 in each group). MRI AAA volume increase was 9.1% for the ticagrelor group and 7.5% for the placebo group (P=0.205) based on intention-to-treat analysis, and 8.5% vs. 7.4% in a per-protocol analysis (P=0.372). MRI diameter change was 2.5mm vs. 1.8mm (P=0.113), US diameter change 2.3mm vs. 2.2mm (P=0.778), and ILT volume change 12.9% vs. 10.4% (P=0.590). Conclusion: In this RCT, platelet inhibition with ticagrelor did not reduce growth of small AAAs. Whether the ILT has an important pathophysiological role for AAA growth cannot be determined based on this study due to the observed lack of thrombus modulating effect of ticagrelor.
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7.
  • Sundby Hall, Kirsten, et al. (författare)
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma patients defined by biological risk factors—A Scandinavian Sarcoma Group study (SSG XX)
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 99, s. 78-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To investigate the outcome following adjuvant doxorubicin and ifosfamide in a prospective non-randomised study based on a soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patient subgroup defined by specific morphological characteristics previously shown to be at a high-risk of metastatic relapse. The expected 5-year cumulative incidence of metastases in patients with this risk profile has previously been reported to be about 50% without adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: High-risk STS was defined as high-grade morphology (according to the Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer [FNCLCC] grade II–III) and either vascular invasion or at least two of the following criteria: tumour size ≥8.0 cm, infiltrative growth and necrosis. Six cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) and ifosfamide (6 g/m2) were given. Postoperative accelerated radiotherapy was applied and scheduled between cycles 3 and 4. Results: For the 150 eligible patients, median follow-up time for metastases-free survival was 3.9 years (range 0.2–8.7). Five-year metastases-free survival (MFS) was 70.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 63.1–78.4) with a local recurrence rate of 14.0% (95% CI: 7.8–20.2). For overall survival (OS), the median follow-up time was 4.4 years (range: 0.2–8.7). The five-year OS was 76.1% (95% CI: 68.8–84.2). Tumour size, deep location and reduced dose intensity (<80%) had a negative impact on survival. Toxicity was moderate with no treatment-related death. Conclusions: A benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy, compared to similar historical control groups, was demonstrated in STS patients with defined poor prognostic factors. Vascular invasion, tumour size, growth pattern and necrosis may identify patients in need of adjuvant chemotherapy.
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9.
  • Ali, Lilas, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Daily life for young adults who care for a person with mental illness: a qualitative study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. - Chichester : Blackwell Publishing. - 1351-0126 .- 1365-2850. ; 19:7, s. 610-617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accessible summary The burden of caring for a person with mental illness has been transferred to families and close friends. Daily life for young informal carers is unpredictable and they need to stay alert and prepared for events beyond their control. Young informal carers are concerned young adults who support a family member or friend unconditionally. Supporting a friend is related to as a great a sense of individual responsibility as supporting a family member. Abstract This study describes the daily life and management strategies of young informal carers of family members or friends with mental illness. Twelve young adults (three men and nine women; 1625 years old) in Sweden were voluntarily recruited between February and May 2008. Data collected through eight individual semi-structured interviews and one focus group interview were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed nine subthemes that were further grouped into three main themes: showing concern, providing support and using management strategies. Participants lived in constant readiness for something unexpected to happen to the person they cared for, and their role in the relationship could change quickly from family member or friend to guardian or supervisor. Supporting a friend was considered as large a personal responsibility as supporting a family member. Their management strategies were based on individual capacities and their ability to step aside should the situation become too demanding. These young informal carers need support in caring for the mentally ill. As the internet becomes increasingly fundamental to daily life, support could be provided most effectively through person-centred web sites.
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10.
  • Bjermo, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 95:5, s. 1003-1012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders. DESIGN: We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6 PUFA (PUFA diet) or SFA mainly from butter (SFA diet), without altering the macronutrient intake. Liver fat was assessed by MRI and magnetic resonance proton (1H) spectroscopy (MRS). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9, a hepatic LDL-receptor regulator), inflammation, and adipose tissue expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes were determined. RESULTS: A total of 61 subjects completed the study. Body weight modestly increased but was not different between groups. Liver fat was lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet [between-group difference in relative change from baseline; 16% (MRI; P < 0.001), 34% (MRS; P = 0.02)]. PCSK9 (P = 0.001), TNF receptor-2 (P < 0.01), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P = 0.02) concentrations were lower during the PUFA diet, whereas insulin (P = 0.06) tended to be higher during the SFA diet. In compliant subjects (defined as change in serum linoleic acid), insulin, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue gene expression was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SFA intake, n-6 PUFAs reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss. A high n-6 PUFA intake does not cause any signs of inflammation or oxidative stress. Downregulation of PCSK9 could be a novel mechanism behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of PUFAs.
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