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  • Bülow, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Adrenal incidentaloma - follow-up results from a Swedish prospective study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 154:3, s. 419-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of developing adrenal carcinomas and clinically overt hypersecreting tumours during short-term follow-up in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. DESIGN: 229 (98 males and 131 females) patients with adrenal incidentalomas were investigated in a prospective follow-up study (median time 25 months; range 3-108 months). The patients were registered between January 1996 and July 2001 and followed until December 2004. Twenty-seven Swedish hospitals contributed with follow-up results. METHODS: Diagnostic procedures were undertaken according to a protocol including reinvestigation with computed tomography scans after 3-6 months, 15-18 months and 27-30 months, as well as hormonal evaluation at baseline and after 27-30 months of follow-up. Operation was recommended when the incidentaloma size increased or if there was a suspicion of a hypersecreting tumour. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of the 229 patients included in the follow-up study was 64 years (range 28-84 years) and the median size of the adrenal incidentalomas when discovered was 2.5 cm (range 1-8 cm). During the follow-up period, an increase in incidentaloma size of > or =0.5 cm was reported in 17 (7.4%) and of > or =1.0 cm was reported in 12 (5.2%) of the 229 patients. A decrease in size was seen in 12 patients (5.2%). A hypersecreting tumour was found in 2% of the hormonally investigated patients: Cushing's syndrome (n = 2) and phaeochromocytoma (n = 1). Eleven patients underwent adrenalectomy, but no cases of primary adrenal malignancy were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adrenal incidentaloma had a low risk of developing malignancy or hormonal hypersecretion during a short-term follow-up period.
  • Borch, K., et al. (författare)
  • Gastric carcinoids: biologic behavior and prognosis after differentiated treatment in relation to type
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Annals of surgery. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0003-4932 .- 1528-1140. ; 242:1, s. 64-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. METHODS: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. RESULTS: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. CONCLUSION: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids.
  • Abels, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • CART is overexpressed in human type 2 diabetic islets and inhibits glucagon secretion and increases insulin secretion
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:9, s. 1928-1937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Insufficient insulin release and hyperglucagonaemia are culprits in type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart−/− mice have diminished insulin secretion. We aimed to test if CART is differentially regulated in human type 2 diabetic islets and if CART affects insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro in humans and in vivo in mice. Methods: CART expression was assessed in human type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control pancreases and rodent models of diabetes. Insulin and glucagon secretion was examined in isolated islets and in vivo in mice. Ca2+ oscillation patterns and exocytosis were studied in mouse islets. Results: We report an important role of CART in human islet function and glucose homeostasis in mice. CART was found to be expressed in human alpha and beta cells and in a subpopulation of mouse beta cells. Notably, CART expression was several fold higher in islets of type 2 diabetic humans and rodents. CART increased insulin secretion in vivo in mice and in human and mouse islets. Furthermore, CART increased beta cell exocytosis, altered the glucose-induced Ca2+ signalling pattern in mouse islets from fast to slow oscillations and improved synchronisation of the oscillations between different islet regions. Finally, CART reduced glucagon secretion in human and mouse islets, as well as in vivo in mice via diminished alpha cell exocytosis. Conclusions/interpretation: We conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin secretion and reduce glucagon secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.
  • Ahmadi, S. S., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of liraglutide on anthropometric measurements, sagittal abdominal diameter and adiponectin levels in people with type 2 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections: evaluations from a randomized trial (MDI-liraglutide study 5)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: OBESITY SCIENCE & PRACTICE. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2055-2238. ; 5:2, s. 130-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim Use of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide has been shown to reduce weight. Different types of anthropometric measurements can be used to measure adiposity. This study evaluated the effect of liraglutide on sagittal abdominal diameter, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and adiponectin levels in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). Materials and methods In the multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled MDI-liraglutide trial, 124 individuals with T2D treated with MDI were randomized to either liraglutide or placebo. Basal values of weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, sagittal abdominal diameter and adiponectin were compared with measurements at 12 and 24 weeks after randomization. Results Baseline-adjusted mean weight loss was 3.8 +/- 2.9 kg greater in liraglutide than placebo-treated individuals (p < 0.0001). Waist circumference was reduced by 2.9 +/- 4.3 cm and 0.2 +/- 3.6 cm in the liraglutide and placebo groups, respectively, after 24 weeks (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 2.6 +/- 4.0 cm, p = 0.0005). Corresponding reductions in sagittal abdominal diameter were 1.1 +/- 1.7 cm and 0.0 +/- 1.8 cm (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 1.1 +/- 1.7 cm, p = 0.0008). Hip circumference was reduced in patients randomized to liraglutide (baseline-adjusted mean difference between treatment groups: 2.8 +/- 3.8 cm, p = 0.0001), but there was no significant difference between the groups in either waist-to-hip ratio (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 0.0 +/- 0.04 cm, p = 0.51) or adiponectin levels (baseline-adjusted mean difference: 0.8 +/- 3.3 mg L-1, p = 0.17). Lower HbA1c and mean glucose levels measured by masked continuous glucose monitoring at baseline were associated with greater effects of liraglutide on reductions in waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter. Conclusions In patients with T2D, adding liraglutide to MDI may reduce abdominal and hip obesity to a similar extent, suggesting an effect on both visceral and subcutaneous fat. Liraglutide had greater effects on reducing abdominal obesity in patients with less pronounced long-term hyperglycaemia but did not affect adiponectin levels.
  • Otten, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity vs the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp: a meta-analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428 .- 0012-186X. ; 57:9, s. 1781-1788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis We aimed to identify which surrogate index of insulin sensitivity has the strongest correlation with the reference measurement, the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (HEC), to determine which surrogate measure should be recommended for use in large-scale studies. Methods A literature search (1979-2012) was conducted to retrieve all articles reporting bivariate correlations between the HEC and surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity (in fasting samples or during the OGTT). We performed a random effects meta-analysis for each surrogate measure to integrate the correlation coefficients of the different studies. Results The OGTT-based surrogate measures with the strongest pooled correlations (r) to the HEC were the Stumvoll metabolic clearance rate (Stumvoll MCR; r=0.70 [95% CI 0.61, 0.77], n=5), oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS; r=0.70 [0.57, 0.80], n=6), the Matsuda index (r=0.67 [0.61, 0.73], n=19), the Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (Stumvoll ISI; r=0.67 [0.60, 0.72], n=8) and the Gutt index (r=0.65 [0.60, 0.69], n=6). The fasting surrogate indices that correlated most strongly with the HEC and had narrow 95% CIs were the revised QUICKI (r=0.68 [0.58, 0.77], n=7), the QUICKI (r=0.61 [0.55, 0.65], n=35), the log HOMA-IR (r=-0.60 [-0.66, -0.53], n=22) and the computer generated HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S; r=0.57 [0.46, 0.67], n=5). Conclusions/interpretation The revised QUICKI fasting surrogate measure appears to be as good as the OGTT-based Stumvoll MCR, OGIS, Matsuda, Stumvoll ISI and Gutt indices for estimating insulin sensitivity. It can therefore be recommended as the most appropriate index for use in large-scale clinical studies.
  • Ahlkvist, L, et al. (författare)
  • Synergism by individual macronutrients explains the marked early GLP-1 and islet hormone responses to mixed meal challenge in mice
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Regulatory Peptides. - : Elsevier. - 0167-0115 .- 1873-1686. ; 178:1-3, s. 29-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Apart from glucose, proteins and lipids also stimulate incretin and islet hormone secretion. However, the glucoregulatory effect of macronutrients in combination is poorly understood. We therefore developed an oral mixed meal model in mice to 1) explore the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and islet hormone responses to mixed meal versus isocaloric glucose, and 2) characterize the relative contribution of individual macronutrients to these responses. Anesthetized C57BL/6J female mice were orally gavaged with 1) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal; glucose, whey protein and peanut oil; 60/20/20% kcal) versus an isocaloric glucose load (0.285 kcal), and 2) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal) versus glucose, whey protein or peanut oil administered individually in their mixed meal caloric quantity, i.e., 0.171, 0.055 and 0.055 kcal, respectively. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin and intact GLP-1 before and during oral challenges. Plasma glucose was lower after mixed meal versus after isocaloric glucose ingestion. In spite of this, the peak insulin response (P=0.02), the peak intact GLP-1 levels (P=0.006) and the estimated β-cell function (P=0.005) were higher. Furthermore, the peak insulin (P=0.004) and intact GLP-1 (P=0.006) levels were higher after mixed meal ingestion than the sum of responses to individual macronutrients. Compared to glucose alone, we conclude that there is a marked early insulin response to mixed meal ingestion, which emanates from a synergistic, rather than an additive, effect of the individual macronutrients in the mixed meal and is in part likely caused by increased levels of GLP-1.
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