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Sökning: WFRF:(Ahrens Wolfgang)

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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Anantharaman, Devasena, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effects of smoking and HPV16 in oropharyngeal cancer
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1464-3685 .- 0300-5771. ; 45:3, s. 61-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is not understood.METHODS: Using HPV serology as a marker of HPV-related cancer, we examined the interaction between smoking and HPV16 in 459 oropharyngeal (and 1445 oral cavity and laryngeal) cancer patients and 3024 control participants from two large European multi-centre studies. Odds ratios and credible intervals [CrI], adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression.RESULTS: Both smoking [odds ratio (OR [CrI]: 6.82 [4.52, 10.29]) and HPV seropositivity (OR [CrI]: 235.69 [99.95, 555.74]) were independently associated with oropharyngeal cancer. The joint association of smoking and HPV seropositivity was consistent with that expected on the additive scale (synergy index [CrI]: 1.32 [0.51, 3.45]), suggesting they act as independent risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was consistently associated with increase in oropharyngeal cancer risk in models stratified by HPV16 seropositivity. In addition, we report that the prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer increases with smoking for both HPV16-positive and HPV16-negative persons. The impact of smoking on HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer highlights the continued need for smoking cessation programmes for primary prevention of head and neck cancer.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
  • Bornhorst, C., et al. (författare)
  • Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - San Francisco : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages >= 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9; 22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5; 22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1; 18.8] to 20.3 [19.8; 20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8; 18.6] to 20.3 [19.8; 20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association with children's BMI growth.
  • Buck, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Urban Moveability and physical activity in children : Longitudinal results from the IDEFICS and I.Family cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. - : BioMed Central. - 1479-5868 .- 1479-5868. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Physical activity (PA) is one of the major protective behaviours to prevent non-communicable diseases. Positive effects of the built environment on PA are well investigated, although evidence of this association is mostly based on cross-sectional studies. The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal effects of built environment characteristics in terms of a moveability index on PA of children in their transition phase to adolescence using data of the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort. Methods: We used data on 3394 accelerometer measurements of 2488 children and adolescents aged 3 to 15 years old from survey centres of three countries, Germany, Italy, and Sweden, who participated in up to three surveys over 6 years. In network-dependent home neighbourhoods, a moveability index was calculated based on residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, availability of public transport and public open spaces such as green spaces and public playgrounds in order to quantify opportunities for PA of children and adolescents. Linear trajectories of light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were estimated using linear mixed models accounting for repeated measurements nested within individuals. Least squares means were estimated to quantify differences in trajectories over age. Results: LPA and MVPA declined annually with age by approximately 20 min/day and 2 min/day respectively. In girls, the moveability index showed a consistent significantly positive effect on MVPA (β $ \hat{\beta} $ = 2.14, 95% CI: (0.11; 4.16)) for all ages, while in boys the index significantly lessened the decline in LPA with age for each year. (β $ \hat{\beta} $ = 2.68, 95% CI: (0.46; 4.90)). Availability of public open spaces was more relevant for MVPA in girls and LPA in boys during childhood, whereas in adolescence, residential density and intersection density became more important. Conclusion: Built environment characteristics are important determinants of PA and were found to have a supportive effect that ameliorates the decline in PA during the transition phase from childhood to adolescence. In childhood environmental support for leisure time PA through public open spaces was found to be the most protective factor whereas in adolescence the positive influence of street connectivity and residential density was most supportive of physical activity. © 2019 The Author(s).
  • Börnhorst, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Potential selection effects when estimating associations between the infancy peak or adiposity rebound and later body mass index in children
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 41:4, s. 518-526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION:This study aims to evaluate a potential selection effect caused by exclusion of children with non-identifiable infancy peak (IP) and adiposity rebound (AR) when estimating associations between age and body mass index (BMI) at IP and AR and later weight statusSUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 4744 children with at least 4 repeated measurements of height and weight in the age interval from 0 to 8 years (37 998 measurements) participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants)/I.Family cohort study, fractional polynomial multilevel models were used to derive individual BMI trajectories. Based on these trajectories, age and BMI at IP and AR, BMI values and growth velocities at selected ages as well as the area under the BMI curve were estimated. The BMI growth measures were standardized and related to later BMI z-scores (mean age at outcome assessment: 9.2 years).RESULTS: Age and BMI at IP and AR were not identifiable in 5.4% and 7.8% of the children, respectively. These groups of children showed a significantly higher BMI growth during infancy and childhood. In the remaining sample, BMI at IP correlated almost perfectly (r⩾0.99) with BMI at ages 0.5, 1 and 1.5 years, whereas BMI at AR correlated perfectly with BMI at ages 4-6 years (r⩾0.98). In the total study group, BMI values in infancy and childhood were positively associated with later BMI z-scores where associations increased with age. Associations between BMI velocities and later BMI z-scores were largest at ages 5 and 6 years. Results differed for children with non-identifiable IP and AR, demonstrating a selection effect.CONCLUSIONS: IP and AR may not be estimable in children with higher-than-average BMI growth. Excluding these children from analyses may result in a selection bias that distorts effect estimates. BMI values at ages 1 and 5 years might be more appropriate to use as predictors for later weight status instead. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
  • Jilani, H., et al. (författare)
  • Relative validity of a food and beverage preference questionnaire to characterize taste phenotypes in children adolescents and adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - : MDPI. - 2072-6643. ; 11:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To assess the relative validity of our food and beverage preference questionnaire we investigated the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores (assessed using a food and beverage preference questionnaire) and sweet and fatty food propensity scores (derived from a food frequency questionnaire). In I.Family, a large European multi-country cohort study, 12,207 participants from Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden, including 5291 adults, 3082 adolescents, and 3834 children, completed a food and beverage preference questionnaire with 63 items. Cumulative preference scores for sweet and fatty taste were calculated from the single item ranking ranging from 1 to 5. The relative consumption frequency of foods classified as sweet and fatty was used to calculate the corresponding consumption propensities, a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 100. We conducted regression analyses to investigate the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores and sweet and fatty food propensity scores, respectively, separately for adults, adolescents ≥12 years, and for children <12 years. The overall sweet taste preference score was positively associated with the sweet food consumption propensity score (β = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.1;2.7) and the fatty taste preference score was positively associated with the fatty food consumption propensity score (β = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.8;2.2). After stratification for age (children <12 years, adolescents ≥12 years, and adults), the effect remained significant in all age groups and was strongest in adolescents and adults. We conclude that our food and beverage preference questionnaire is a useful instrument for epidemiological studies on sensory perception and health outcomes and for the characterization of sensory taste phenotypes. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Jilani, H. S., et al. (författare)
  • Association between parental consumer attitudes with their children's sensory taste preferences as well as their food choice
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We investigated the association between the consumer attitudes of European parents and their children's taste preferences and food choice. Furthermore, we studied whether the parental consumer attitudes were related to education level. This analysis included 1,407 IDEFICS study children aged 6.0 to 11.8 years and from 7 European countries, who participated in the sensory taste perception module between 2007 and 2010. Parental consumer attitude was operationalized as 'trusting in foods known from advertisements' (trusting advertisements) and as 'not avoiding additives in food' (not avoiding additives). Parents reported their educational attainment and completed a food frequency questionnaire for their children. Consumption frequencies of sweet, fatty and processed foods as well as a healthy diet adherence score were calculated. Children performed fat, sweet and umami taste preference tests. Multivariable logistic models were used to analyse the association between parental consumer attitudes and their children's taste preference frequencies as well as parental education. Linear regression models were used to analyse the association between parental consumer attitudes and their children's food consumption. Parental consumer attitudes were not associated with children's fat, sweet and umami taste preferences. Children of parents trusting advertisements consumed more frequently processed foods (beta = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.49; 1.93). Children of parents not avoiding additives consumed more often sweet, fatty and processed foods and had a lower healthy diet adherence score (beta = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.03; 3.70; beta = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.12; 3.43; beta = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.22; 1.59; beta = -2.87, 95% CI: -3.89; -1.85, respectively). Unfavourable parental consumer attitudes were associated with a lower parental education level across Europe (Compared to high education: Odds Ratio (OR) of trusting advertisements with medium education: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.77; 1.40; OR with low education: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.15; 3.54; OR of not avoiding additives with medium education: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.44; 2.54; OR with low education: 1.76, 95% CI: 0.96; 3.24). Across Europe, unfavourable parental consumer attitudes are associated with a lower diet quality of their children. Parental consumer attitudes in turn were associated with their own level of education. This has implications for policy makers, interventions and health promotion programmes that aim to promote healthy eating.
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