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Sökning: WFRF:(Aisen Paul)

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1.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-specific genetic predictors of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 0001-6322. ; 136:6, s. 857-872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) and tau have been evaluated as endophenotypes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) genetic studies. Although there are sex differences in AD risk, sex differences have not been evaluated in genetic studies of AD endophenotypes. We performed sex-stratified and sex interaction genetic analyses of CSF biomarkers to identify sex-specific associations. Data came from a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF Aβ42 and tau (1527 males, 1509 females). We evaluated sex interactions at previous loci, performed sex-stratified GWAS to identify sex-specific associations, and evaluated sex interactions at sex-specific GWAS loci. We then evaluated sex-specific associations between prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression at relevant loci and autopsy measures of plaques and tangles using data from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. In Aβ42, we observed sex interactions at one previous and one novel locus: rs316341 within SERPINB1 (p = 0.04) and rs13115400 near LINC00290 (p = 0.002). These loci showed stronger associations among females (β = − 0.03, p = 4.25 × 10−8; β = 0.03, p = 3.97 × 10−8) than males (β = − 0.02, p = 0.009; β = 0.01, p = 0.20). Higher levels of expression of SERPINB1, SERPINB6, and SERPINB9 in PFC was associated with higher levels of amyloidosis among females (corrected p values < 0.02) but not males (p > 0.38). In total tau, we observed a sex interaction at a previous locus, rs1393060 proximal to GMNC (p = 0.004), driven by a stronger association among females (β = 0.05, p = 4.57 × 10−10) compared to males (β = 0.02, p = 0.03). There was also a sex-specific association between rs1393060 and tangle density at autopsy (pfemale = 0.047; pmale = 0.96), and higher levels of expression of two genes within this locus were associated with lower tangle density among females (OSTN p = 0.006; CLDN16 p = 0.002) but not males (p ≥ 0.32). Results suggest a female-specific role for SERPINB1 in amyloidosis and for OSTN and CLDN16 in tau pathology. Sex-specific genetic analyses may improve understanding of AD’s genetic architecture.
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2.
  • Dubois, Bruno, et al. (författare)
  • Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 12:3, s. 292-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations.
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3.
  • Hampel, Harald, et al. (författare)
  • Advances in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease : targeting amyloid beta and tau and perspectives for the future
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. - 1473-7175 .- 1744-8360. ; 15:1, s. 83-105
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Worldwide multidisciplinary translational research has led to a growing knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicating that pathophysiological brain alterations occur decades before clinical signs and symptoms of cognitive decline can be diagnosed. Consequently, therapeutic concepts and targets have been increasingly focused on early-stage illness before the onset of dementia; and distinct classes of compounds are now being tested in clinical trials. At present, there is a growing consensus that therapeutic progress in AD delaying disease progression would significantly decrease the expanding global burden. The evolving hypothesis- and evidence-based generation of new diagnostic research criteria for early-stage AD has positively impacted the development of clinical trial designs and the characterization of earlier and more specific target populations for trials in prodromal as well as in pre- and asymptomatic at-risk stages of AD.
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4.
  • Hampel, Harald, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease therapeutic trials.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Progress in neurobiology. - 1873-5118. ; 95:4
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease requires innovative trials with large numbers of subjects and long observation periods. The use of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or neuroimaging biomarkers is critical for the demonstration of disease-modifying therapy effects on the brain. Suitable biomarkers are those which reflect the progression of AD related molecular mechanisms and neuropathology, including amyloidogenic processing and aggregation, hyperphosphorylation, accumulation of tau and neurofibrillary tangles, progressive functional, metabolic and structural decline, leading to neurodegeneration, loss of brain tissue and cognitive symptoms. Biomarkers should be used throughout clinical trial phases I-III of AD drug development. They can be used to enhance inclusion and exclusion criteria, or as baseline predictors to increase the statistical power of trials. Validated and qualified biomarkers may be used as outcome measures to detect treatment effects in pivotal clinical trials. Finally, biomarkers can be used to identify adverse effects. Questions regarding which biomarkers should be used in clinical trials, and how, are currently far from resolved. The Oxford Task Force continues and expands the work of our previous international expert task forces on disease-modifying trials and on endpoints for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials. The aim of this initiative was to bring together a selected number of key international opinion leaders and experts from academia, regulatory agencies and industry to condense the current knowledge and state of the art regarding the best use of biological markers in Alzheimer's disease therapy trials and to propose practical recommendations for the planning of future AD trials.
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5.
  • Insel, P. S., et al. (författare)
  • Accelerating rates of cognitive decline and imaging markers associated with β-amyloid pathology
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 0028-3878. ; 86:20, s. 1887-1896
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To estimate points along the spectrum of β-amyloid pathology at which rates of change of several measures of neuronal injury and cognitive decline begin to accelerate. Methods: In 460 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), we estimated the points at which rates of florbetapir PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, MRI, and cognitive and functional decline begin to accelerate with respect to baseline CSF Aβ 42. Points of initial acceleration in rates of decline were estimated using mixed-effects regression. Results: Rates of neuronal injury and cognitive and even functional decline accelerate substantially before the conventional threshold for amyloid positivity, with rates of florbetapir PET and FDG PET accelerating early. Temporal lobe atrophy rates also accelerate prior to the threshold, but not before the acceleration of cognitive and functional decline. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of patients with MCI would not meet inclusion criteria for a trial using the current threshold for amyloid positivity, even though on average, they are experiencing cognitive/functional decline associated with prethreshold levels of CSF Aβ 42. Future trials in early Alzheimer disease might consider revising the criteria regarding β-amyloid thresholds to include the range of amyloid associated with the first signs of accelerating rates of decline. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
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6.
  • Desikan, Rahul S, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-β associated volume loss occurs only in the presence of phospho-tau.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of neurology. - 1531-8249. ; 70:4, s. 657-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between neurodegeneration and the 2 hallmark proteins of Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, is still unclear. Here, we examined 286 nondemented participants (107 cognitively normal older adults and 179 memory impaired individuals) who underwent longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and lumbar puncture. Using mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between longitudinal entorhinal cortex atrophy rate, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) p-tau(181p) and CSF Aβ(1-42) . We found a significant relationship between elevated entorhinal cortex atrophy rate and decreased CSF Aβ(1-42) only with elevated CSF p-tau(181p) . Our findings indicate that Aβ-associated volume loss occurs only in the presence of phospho-tau in humans at risk for dementia.
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7.
  • Donohue, Michael C., et al. (författare)
  • Cross-validation of optimized composites for preclinical Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Interventions. - : John Wiley and Sons. ; 3:1, s. 123-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction We discuss optimization and validation of composite end points for presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease clinical trials. Optimized composites offer hope of substantial gains in statistical power or reduction in sample size. But there is tradeoff between optimization and face validity such that optimization should only be considered if there is a convincing rationale. As with statistically derived regions of interest in neuroimaging, validation on independent data sets is essential. Methods Using four data sets, we consider the optimized weighting of four components of a cognitive composite which includes measures of (1) global cognition, (2) semantic memory, (3) episodic memory, and (4) executive function. Weights are optimized to either discriminate amyloid positivity or maximize power to detect a treatment effect in an amyloid-positive population. We apply repeated 5 × 3-fold cross-validation to quantify the out-of-sample performance of optimized composite end points. Results We found the optimized weights varied greatly across the folds of the cross-validation with either optimization method. Both optimization methods tend to down-weight the measures of global cognition and executive function. However, when these optimized composites were applied to the validation sets, they did not provide consistent improvements in power. In fact, overall, the optimized composites performed worse than those without optimization. Discussion We find that component weight optimization does not yield valid improvements in sensitivity of this composite to detect treatment effects.
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8.
  • Hampel, Harald, et al. (författare)
  • Biological markers of amyloid beta-related mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Experimental neurology. - 1090-2430. ; 223:2, s. 334-46
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent research progress has given detailed knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been translated into an intense, ongoing development of disease-modifying treatments. Most new drug candidates are targeted on inhibiting amyloid beta (Abeta) production and aggregation. In drug development, it is important to co-develop biomarkers for Abeta-related mechanisms to enable early diagnosis and patient stratification in clinical trials, and to serve as tools to identify and monitor the biochemical effect of the drug directly in patients. Biomarkers are also requested by regulatory authorities to serve as safety measurements. Molecular aberrations in the AD brain are reflected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Core CSF biomarkers include Abeta isoforms (Abeta40/Abeta42), soluble APP isoforms, Abeta oligomers and beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). This article reviews recent research advances on core candidate CSF and plasma Abeta-related biomarkers, and gives a conceptual review on how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials in AD.
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9.
  • Hampel, Harald, et al. (författare)
  • Perspective on Future Role of Biological Markers in Clinical Therapy Trials of Alzheimer's Disease: A Long-Range Point of View Beyond 2020.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biochemical pharmacology. - 1873-2968. ; 88:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying various paths towards the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has begun to provide new insight for interventions to modify disease progression. The evolving knowledge gained from multidisciplinary basic research has begun to identify new concepts for treatments and distinct classes of therapeutic targets; as well as putative disease-modifying compounds that are now being tested in clinical trials. There is a mounting consensus that such disease modifying compounds and/or interventions are more likely to be effectively administered as early as possible in the cascade of pathogenic processes preceding and underlying the clinical expression of AD. The budding sentiment is that "treatments" need to be applied before various molecular mechanisms converge into an irreversible pathway leading to morphological, metabolic and functional alterations that characterize the pathophysiology of AD. In light of this, biological indicators of pathophysiological mechanisms are desired to chart and detect AD throughout the asymptomatic early molecular stages into the prodromal and early dementia phase. A major conceptual development in the clinical AD research field was the recent proposal of new diagnostic criteria, which specifically incorporate the use of biomarkers as defining criteria for preclinical stages of AD. This paradigm shift in AD definition, conceptualization, operationalization, detection and diagnosis represents novel fundamental opportunities for the modification of interventional trial designs. This perspective summarizes not only present knowledge regarding biological markers but also unresolved questions on the status of surrogate indicators for detection of the disease in asymptomatic people and diagnosis of AD.
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10.
  • Insel, Philip S., et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive and functional changes associated with Aβ pathology and the progression to mild cognitive impairment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580. ; 48, s. 172-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitively-normal people with evidence of β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology and subtle cognitive dysfunction are believed to be at high risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical trials in later stages of AD typically include a coprimary endpoint to demonstrate efficacy on both cognitive and functional assessments. Recent trials focus on cognitively-normal people, but functional decline has not been explored for trial designs in this group. The goal of this study was therefore to characterize cognitive and functional decline in (1) cognitively-normal people converting to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (2) cognitively-normal β-amyloid-positive (Aβ+) people. Specifically, we sought to identify and compare the cognitive and functional assessments and their weighted combinations that maximize the longitudinal decline specific to these 2 groups. We studied 68 people who converted from normal cognition to MCI and 70 nonconverters, as well as 137 Aβ+ and 210 β-amyloid-negative cognitively-normal people. We used bootstrap aggregation and cross-validated mixed-models to estimate the distribution of weights applied to cognitive and functional outcomes to form composites. We also evaluated best subset optimization. Using optimized composites, we estimated statistical power for a variety of clinical trial scenarios. Overall, 55.4% of cognitively-normal to MCI converters were Aβ+. Large gains in power estimates were obtained when requiring participants to have both subtle cognitive dysfunction and Aβ pathology compared with requiring Aβ pathology alone. Additional power resulted when including functional as well as cognitive outcomes as part of the composite. Composites formed by applying equal weights to all measures provided the highest estimates of cross-validated power, although similar to both continuous weight optimization and best subset optimization. Using a composite to detect a 30% slowing of decline, 80% power was obtained for predicted Aβ+ converters with 375 completers/arm for a 30-month trial using a combination of cognitive/ functional measures. In the Aβ+ group, power to approach levels suitable for a phase III clinical trial would require considerably larger sample sizes. Composites incorporating both cognitive and functional measures may substantially increase the power of a trial in a preclinical (Aβ+) AD population with subtle evidence of cognitive dysfunction.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 16
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