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Sökning: WFRF:(Aken Bronwen)

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1.
  • Aken, Bronwen L., et al. (författare)
  • The Ensembl gene annotation system
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Database. - 1758-0463 .- 1758-0463.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Ensembl gene annotation system has been used to annotate over 70 different vertebrate species across a wide range of genome projects. Furthermore, it generates the automatic alignment-based annotation for the human and mouse GENCODE gene sets. The system is based on the alignment of biological sequences, including cDNAs, proteins and RNA-seq reads, to the target genome in order to construct candidate transcript models. Careful assessment and filtering of these candidate transcripts ultimately leads to the final gene set, which is made available on the Ensembl website. Here, we describe the annotation process in detail.
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2.
  • Amemiya, Chris T, et al. (författare)
  • The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 496:7445, s. 311-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of a living coelacanth specimen in 1938 was remarkable, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have become extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features. Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution.
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3.
  • Braasch, Ingo, et al. (författare)
  • The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:4, s. 427-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization and development (mediated, for example, by Hox, ParaHox and microRNA genes). Numerous conserved noncoding elements (CNEs; often cis regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles for such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the sums of expression domains and expression levels for duplicated teleost genes often approximate the patterns and levels of expression for gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes and the function of human regulatory sequences.
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4.
  • Brawand, David, et al. (författare)
  • The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 513:7518, s. 375-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cichlid fishes are famous for large, diverse and replicated adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa. To understand themolecular mechanisms underlying cichlid phenotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five lineages of African cichlids: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), an ancestral lineage with low diversity; and four members of the East African lineage: Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher (older radiation, Lake Tanganyika), Metriaclima zebra (recent radiation, Lake Malawi), Pundamilia nyererei (very recent radiation, Lake Victoria), and Astatotilapia burtoni (riverine species around Lake Tanganyika). We found an excess of gene duplications in the East African lineage compared to tilapia and other teleosts, an abundance of non-coding element divergence, accelerated coding sequence evolution, expression divergence associated with transposable element insertions, and regulation by novel microRNAs. In addition, we analysed sequence data from sixty individuals representing six closely related species from Lake Victoria, and show genome-wide diversifying selection on coding and regulatory variants, some of which were recruited from ancient polymorphisms. We conclude that a number of molecular mechanisms shaped East African cichlid genomes, and that amassing of standing variation during periods of relaxed purifying selection may have been important in facilitating subsequent evolutionary diversification.
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5.
  • Carneiro, Miguel, et al. (författare)
  • Rabbit genome analysis reveals a polygenic basis for phenotypic change during domestication
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 345:6200, s. 1074-1079
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic changes underlying the initial steps of animal domestication are still poorly understood. We generated a high-quality reference genome for the rabbit and compared it to resequencing data from populations of wild and domestic rabbits. We identified more than 100 selective sweeps specific to domestic rabbits but only a relatively small number of fixed (or nearly fixed) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for derived alleles. SNPs with marked allele frequency differences between wild and domestic rabbits were enriched for conserved noncoding sites. Enrichment analyses suggest that genes affecting brain and neuronal development have often been targeted during domestication. We propose that because of a truly complex genetic background, tame behavior in rabbits and other domestic animals evolved by shifts in allele frequencies at many loci, rather than by critical changes at only a few domestication loci.
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6.
  • Mikkelsen, Tarjei S, et al. (författare)
  • Genome of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica reveals innovation in non-coding sequences
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 447:7141, s. 167-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of the grey, short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). As the first metatherian ('marsupial') species to be sequenced, the opossum provides a unique perspective on the organization and evolution of mammalian genomes. Distinctive features of the opossum chromosomes provide support for recent theories about genome evolution and function, including a strong influence of biased gene conversion on nucleotide sequence composition, and a relationship between chromosomal characteristics and X chromosome inactivation. Comparison of opossum and eutherian genomes also reveals a sharp difference in evolutionary innovation between protein-coding and non-coding functional elements. True innovation in protein-coding genes seems to be relatively rare, with lineage-specific differences being largely due to diversification and rapid turnover in gene families involved in environmental interactions. In contrast, about 20% of eutherian conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) are recent inventions that postdate the divergence of Eutheria and Metatheria. A substantial proportion of these eutherian-specific CNEs arose from sequence inserted by transposable elements, pointing to transposons as a major creative force in the evolution of mammalian gene regulation.
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7.
  • Palkopoulou, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive genomic history of extinct and living elephants
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : NATL ACAD SCIENCES. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 115:11, s. E2566-E2574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elephantids are the world's most iconic megafaunal family, yet there is no comprehensive genomic assessment of their relationships. We report a total of 14 genomes, including 2 from the American mastodon, which is an extinct elephantid relative, and 12 spanning all three extant and three extinct elephantid species including an similar to 120,000-y-old straight-tusked elephant, a Columbian mammoth, and woolly mammoths. Earlier genetic studies modeled elephantid evolution via simple bifurcating trees, but here we show that interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature of elephantid evolution. We found that the genetic makeup of the straight-tusked elephant, previously placed as a sister group to African forest elephants based on lower coverage data, in fact comprises three major components. Most of the straight-tusked elephant's ancestry derives from a lineage related to the ancestor of African elephants while its remaining ancestry consists of a large contribution from a lineage related to forest elephants and another related to mammoths. Columbian and woolly mammoths also showed evidence of interbreeding, likely following a latitudinal cline across North America. While hybridization events have shaped elephantid history in profound ways, isolation also appears to have played an important role. Our data reveal nearly complete isolation between the ancestors of the African forest and savanna elephants for similar to 500,000 y, providing compelling justification for the conservation of forest and savanna elephants as separate species.
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8.
  • Peng, Xinxia, et al. (författare)
  • The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - 1087-0156 .- 1546-1696. ; 32:12, s. 1250-U114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission(1-)4. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.
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10.
  • Uebbing, Severin, et al. (författare)
  • Divergence in gene expression within and between two closely related flycatcher species
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 25:9, s. 2015-2028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Relatively little is known about the character of gene expression evolution as species diverge. It is for instance unclear if gene expression generally evolves in a clock-like manner (by stabilizing selection or neutral evolution) or if there are frequent episodes of directional selection. To gain insights into the evolutionary divergence of gene expression, we sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of multiple organs from population samples of collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied flycatchers (F. hypoleuca), two species which diverged less than one million years ago. Ordination analysis separated samples by organ rather than by species. Organs differed in their degrees of expression variance within species and expression divergence between species. Variance was negatively correlated with expression breadth and protein interactivity, suggesting that pleiotropic constraints reduce gene expression variance within species. Variance was correlated with between-species divergence, consistent with a pattern expected from stabilizing selection and neutral evolution. Using an expression PST approach, we identified genes differentially expressed between species and found 16 genes uniquely expressed in one of the species. For one of these, DPP7, uniquely expressed in collared flycatcher, the absence of expression in pied flycatcher could be associated with a ≈ 20 kb deletion including 11 out of 13 exons. This study of a young vertebrate speciation model system expands our knowledge of how gene expression evolves as natural populations become reproductively isolated.
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