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Sökning: WFRF:(Akesson Kristina)

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1.
  • Garg, Gaurav, et al. (författare)
  • Variation in the MC4R Gene Is Associated with Bone Phenotypes in Elderly Swedish Women.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Fat mass is a determinant of bone strength and both phenotypes have a strong genetic component. In this study, we examined the association between obesity associated polymorphisms (SNPs) with body composition, BMD, Ultrasound (QUS), fracture and biomarkers (Homocysteine (Hcy), folate, Vitamin D and Vitamin B12) for obesity and osteoporosis. Five common variants: rs17782313 and rs1770633 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R); rs7566605 (insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2); rs9939609 and rs1121980 (fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) were genotyped in 2 cohorts of Swedish women: PEAK-25 (age 25, n = 1061) and OPRA (age 75, n = 1044). Body mass index (BMI), total body fat and lean mass were strongly positively correlated with QUS and BMD in both cohorts (r(2) = 0.2-0.6). MC4R rs17782313 was associated with QUS in the OPRA cohort and individuals with the minor C-allele had higher values compared to T-allele homozygotes (TT vs. CT vs.
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2.
  • Karasik, D., et al. (författare)
  • Disentangling the genetics of lean mass
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 109:2, s. 276-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age(2), and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LMwere termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.
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3.
  • Lagerholm, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic regulation of bone traits is influenced by sex and reciprocal cross in F(2) progeny from GK and F344 rats.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681. ; 24:6, s. 1066-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A genome-wide linkage analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone phenotypes was performed in an F(2) intercross of inbred spontaneously type 2 diabetic GK and normoglycemic F344 rats (108 males and 98 females). The aim of the study was to locate genome regions with candidate genes affecting trabecular and cortical bone and to investigate the effects of sex and reciprocal cross. pQCT was used to determine tibial bone phenotypes in the F(2) rats, comprising reciprocal crosses with divergent mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Sex and reciprocal cross-separated QTL analyses were performed followed by assessment of specific interactions. Four genome-wide significant QTLs linked to either cortical vBMD, tibia length, body length, or metaphyseal area were identified in males on chromosomes (chr) 1, 8, and 15. In females, three significant QTLs linked to cortical BMC or metaphyseal total vBMD were identified on chr 1 and 2. Several additional suggestive loci for trabecular and cortical traits were detected in both males and females. Four female-specific QTLs on chr 2, 3, 5, and 10 and four reciprocal cross-specific QTLs on chr 1, 10, and 18 were identified, suggesting that both sex and mt genotype influence the expression of bone phenotypes.
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4.
  • Lauppe, Rosa, et al. (författare)
  • Differing impact of clinical factors on the risk of fracture in younger and older women in the general population and an osteoporosis clinic population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Archives of Osteoporosis. - : Springer. - 1862-3522 .- 1862-3514. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary: This study assesses the impact of risk factors for fracture in women aged 80+ and 60–79. The results suggest that risk assessment which fits younger women may not be suited for the 80+ strata as many common risk factors are less predictive in the older compared to the younger cohort. Purpose: This study assesses whether the impact of classical risk factors for fracture due to osteoporosis is different in women aged 80+ and women aged 60–79. Since most prior research on the contribution of risk factors is based on patients below 80 years of age, this study aims to fill this knowledge gap to increase the accuracy of risk assessment in the oldest old. Methods: Retrospective, observational cohort study using Swedish national health register data and BMD data from osteoporosis clinics. Women aged at least 60 were identified from a random sample of the general population and from the BMD databases and allocated to two populations representing patients at different stages of risk assessment. The relative impact of risk factors on fracture risk was assessed using multivariate competing risk regression with fracture as outcome and death as competing event. Results: A total of 163,329 women were included from the general population (52,499 aged 80+) and 22,378 from the BMD databases (4563 aged 80+). The clinical risk factors with relatively highest effect on fracture risk in the older patients were prior fracture and hip T-score below − 2.5 SD. Other included risk factors showed lower impact in the older compared to the younger strata. Conclusions: This study confirms our understanding of the key risk factors for fracture: age, prior fracture, and a low T-score. Regarding remaining risk factors, risk assessment which fits younger women may not be suited for the 80+ strata as many common risk factors are less predictive in the older compared to the younger cohort.
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5.
  • Robinson-Cohen, C., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - : American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 29:10, s. 2583-2592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism, contributes to the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders in CKD and is an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. Central elements of FGF23 regulation remain incompletely understood; genetic variation may help explain interindividual differences. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of circulating FGF23 concentrations among 16,624 participants of European ancestry from seven cohort studies, excluding participants with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to focus on FGF23 under normal conditions. We evaluated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with natural log-transformed FGF23 concentration, adjusted for age, sex, study site, and principal components of ancestry. A second model additionally adjusted for BMI and eGFR. Results We discovered 154 SNPs from five independent regions associated with FGF23 concentration. The SNP with the strongest association, rs17216707 (P=3.0x10(-24)), lies upstream of CYP24A1, which encodes the primary catabolic enzyme for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Each additional copy of the T allele at this locus is associated with 5% higher FGF23 concentration. Another locus strongly associated with variations in FGF23 concentration is rs11741640, within RGS14 and upstream of SLC34A1 (a gene involved in renal phosphate transport). Additional adjustment for BMI and eGFR did not materially alter the magnitude of these associations. Another top locus (within ABO, the ABO blood group transferase gene) was no longer statistically significant at the genome-wide level. Conclusions Common genetic variants located near genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and renal phosphate transport are associated with differences in circulating FGF23 concentrations.
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6.
  • Swanberg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and bone loss in postmenopausal women.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2763 .- 8756-3282. ; 47:2, s. 424-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoporosis is a severe condition in postmenopausal women and a common cause of fracture. Osteoporosis is a complex disease with a strong genetic impact, but susceptibility is determined by many genes with modest effects and environmental factors. Only a handful of genes consistently associated with osteoporosis have been identified so far. Inflammation affects bone metabolism by interfering with the interplay between bone resorption and formation, and many inflammatory mediators are involved in natural bone remodeling. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to affect bone density in rodents, and polymorphisms in the human MIF promoter are associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the MIF gene with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in 1002 elderly women using MIF promoter polymorphisms MIF-CATT(5-8) and rs755622(G/C) located -794 and -173 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Bone loss was estimated both by the change in BMD over 5 years and by the levels of bone resorption markers in serum measured at four occasions during a 5-year period. The MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype was associated with increased rate of bone loss during 5 years at the femoral neck (p<0.05) and total hip (p<0.05). In addition, the MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype carriers had higher levels of the bone turnover marker serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (S-CTX-I, p<0.01) during the 5 year follow-up period. There was no association between MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) and baseline BMD at femoral neck, total hip or lumbar spine. We conclude that MIF promoter polymorphisms have modest effects on bone remodeling and are associated with the rate of bone loss in elderly women.
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7.
  • Söreskog, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of major osteoporotic fracture after first, second and third fracture in Swedish women aged 50 years and older
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 8756-3282 .- 1873-2763. ; 134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Osteoporosis affects approximately one in five European women and leads to fragility fractures, which result in poor health, social and economic consequences. Fragility fractures are a strong risk factor for subsequent major osteoporotic fracture (MOF), with risk of MOF being elevated in the 1–2 years following an earlier fracture, a concept described as “imminent risk”. This study examines risk of subsequent MOF in patients with one, two or three prior fractures by age and type of fracture. Methods: In this retrospective, observational cohort study, Swedish women aged ≥50 years with ≥1 any clinical fragility fracture between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 were identified from Sweden's National Patient Register. Each patient was age- and sex-matched to three controls without history of fracture. Group 1 women included those with one fragility fracture during the study period; Group 2 included those with two fragility fractures; and Group 3 included those with three fragility fractures. “Index fracture” was defined as the first fracture during the study period for Group 1; the second for Group 2; and the third for Group 3. Patients in each cohort and matched controls were followed for up to 60 months or until subsequent MOF (hip, vertebra, forearm, humerus), death or end of data availability. Results: 231,769 women with at least one fracture were included in the study and therefore constituted Group 1; of these, 39,524 constituted Group 2 and of those, 7656 constituted Group 3. At five years, cumulative incidence of subsequent MOF was higher in patients with a history of fracture as compared to controls (Group 1: 20.7% vs 12.3%; Group 2: 32.0% vs 15.3%). Three-year cumulative incidence for Group 3 was 12.1% (vs 10.7% for controls). After adjusting for baseline covariates, risk of subsequent MOF was highest within 0–24 months following an index fracture, then decreased but remained elevated as compared to controls. Having two prior fractures, vertebral fractures and younger age at time of index fracture were associated with greater relative risk. Conclusions: Women with a history of osteoporotic fracture are at increased risk of subsequent fracture, which is highest during the first 24 months following a fracture. Younger women and those with vertebral fractures are at greatest relative risk, suggesting that treatment should target these patients and be timely enough to impact the period of imminent risk.
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8.
  • Zillikens, M. C., et al. (författare)
  • Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 x 10(-8)) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2.3 x 10(-6)). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/ near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/ near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.
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9.
  • Buchebner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Hypovitaminosis D in Elderly Women and Long- and Short-Term Mortality-Results from the Osteoporotic Prospective Risk Assessment Cohort
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 64:5, s. 7-990
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between low vitamin D levels (<50 nmol/L) and 10-year mortality in women aged 75 and older.DESIGN: Prospective with 15 years of follow-up.SETTING: Malmö, Sweden.PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort of 75-year-old women (N = 1,044).MEASUREMENTS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels at age 75 (n = 1,011), 80 (n = 642), and 85 (n = 348) were categorized as low (<50 nmol/L), intermediate (50-75 nmol/L) and high (>75 nmol/L) at all ages. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality between ages 75 and 90 were calculated according to 25(OH)D category.RESULTS: Between ages 80 and 90, all-cause mortality (HR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-2.4, P < .001; adjusted for comorbidities (aHR) = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.6, P < .001) was significantly higher in women with low 25(OH)D levels than in those with high levels. Osteoporosis had the greatest effect on mortality, but even after excluding women with osteoporotic fracture during the risk of dying associated with low 25(OH)D remained greater (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7, P = .002; aHR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.5, P = .006).CONCLUSION: In this observational study of women aged 75 and older, 25(OH)D levels of less than 50 nmol/L were associated with greater all-cause mortality for up to 10 years. This difference was at least partially independent of comorbidities and fracture, indicating that low 25(OH)D not only is an indicator of impaired health, but also plays a role in disease outcome.
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10.
  • Buchebner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Vitamin D, Frailty, and Progression of Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Women
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 104:12, s. 6139-6147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Vitamin D (25OHD) is involved in many physiological functions that decline with age, contributing to frailty and increased risk for negative health outcomes. Whether 25OHD is a long-term risk marker for frailty over a longer time and whether it is consistent with advancing age is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between 25OHD and frailty in older women followed for 10 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, population-based, cohort study in Malmö, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling women, age 75 years (N = 1044) with reassessments at ages 80 (n = 715) and 85 (n = 382) years. METHODS: Frailty was quantified using a 10-variable frailty index. Women were categorized as 25OHD insufficient (<50 nmol/L) or sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). RESULTS: At ages 75 and 80 years, women with insufficient 25OHD were frailer than women with sufficient 25OHD (0.23 vs 0.18, P < 0.001; and 0.32 vs 0.25, P = 0.001, respectively). At age 80 years, 25OHD insufficiency was associated with subsequent frailty 5 years later (0.41 vs 0.32; P = 0.011). Accelerated progression of frailty was not associated with lower 25OHD levels, and 25OHD level >75 nmol/L was not additionally beneficial with regard to frailty. No association between 25OHD and frailty was observed at age 85 years. Within the frailty index, variables associated with 25OHD were related to muscle strength and function. CONCLUSION: In this study, 25OHD insufficiency was associated with increased frailty in all but the oldest old. This study supports the value of maintaining sufficient 25OHD levels for healthy aging.
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