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  • Cheng, Sulin, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in 10-12-y-old girls: a 2-y randomized trial.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 82:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relative effectiveness of calcium supplementation from food or pills with or without vitamin D supplementation for bone mass accrual during the rapid growth period. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to examine the effects of both food-based and pill supplements of calcium and vitamin D on bone mass and body composition in girls aged 10-12 y. DESIGN: This placebo-controlled intervention trial randomly assigned 195 healthy girls at Tanner stage I-II, aged 10-12 y, with dietary calcium intakes <900 mg/d to 1 of 4 groups: calcium (1000 mg) + vitamin D3 (200 IU), calcium (1000 mg), cheese (1000 mg calcium), and placebo. Primary outcomes were bone indexes of the hip, spine, and whole body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and of the radius and tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. RESULTS: With the use of intention-to-treat or efficacy analysis, calcium supplementation with cheese resulted in a higher percentage change in cortical thickness of the tibia than did placebo, calcium, or calcium + vitamin D treatment (P = 0.01, 0.038, and 0.004, respectively) and in higher whole-body bone mineral density than did placebo treatment (P = 0.044) when compliance was >50%. With the use of a hierarchical linear model with random effects to control for growth velocity, these differences disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing calcium intake by consuming cheese appears to be more beneficial for cortical bone mass accrual than the consumption of tablets containing a similar amount of calcium. Diverse patterns of growth velocity may mask the efficacy of supplementation in a short-term trial of children transiting through puberty.
  • Lovric, Alen, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of different fat depots in NAFLD using inflammation-associated proteome, lipidome and metabolome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome, accompanied with excessive fat accumulation in the liver and other vital organs. Ectopic fat accumulation was previously associated with negative effects at the systemic and local level in the human body. Thus, we aimed to identify and assess the predictive capability of novel potential metabolic biomarkers for ectopic fat depots in non-diabetic men with NAFLD, using the inflammation-associated proteome, lipidome and metabolome. Myocardial and hepatic triglycerides were measured with magnetic spectroscopy while function of left ventricle, pericardial and epicardial fat, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Measured ectopic fat depots were profiled and predicted using a Random Forest algorithm, and by estimating the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. We have identified distinct metabolic signatures of fat depots in the liver (TAG50:1, glutamate, diSM18:0 and CE20:3), pericardium (N-palmitoyl-sphinganine, HGF, diSM18:0, glutamate, and TNFSF14), epicardium (sphingomyelin, CE20:3, PC38:3 and TNFSF14), and myocardium (CE20:3, LAPTGF-beta 1, glutamate and glucose). Our analyses highlighted non-invasive biomarkers that accurately predict ectopic fat depots, and reflect their distinct metabolic signatures in subjects with NAFLD.
  • Cristea, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of combined strength and sprint training on regulation of muscle contraction at the whole-muscle and single fibre levels in elite master sprinters
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - 1748-1708 .- 1748-1716. ; 193:3, s. 275-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: This study aims at examining the effects of progressive strength and sprint training on regulation of muscle contraction at the whole-muscle and single-fibre levels in older sprint-trained athletes. METHODS: Eleven men (52-78 years) were randomized to a training (EX, n = 7) or control (CTRL, n = 4) group. EX participated in a 20-week programme that combined sprint training with heavy and explosive strength exercises, while CTRL maintained their usual run-based training schedules. RESULTS: EX improved maximal isometric and dynamic leg strength, explosive jump performance and force production in running. Specific tension and maximum shortening velocity of single fibres from the vastus lateralis were not altered in EX or CTRL. Fibre type and myosin heavy chain isoform distributions remained unchanged in the two groups. There was a general increase in fibre areas in EX, but this was significant only in IIa fibres. The 10% increase in squat jump in EX was accompanied by a 9% increase in the integrated EMG (iEMG) of the leg extensors but the 21-40% increases in isometric and dynamic strength were not paralleled by changes in iEMG. CONCLUSION: Adding strength training stimulus to the training programme improved maximal, explosive and sport-specific force production in elite master sprinters. These improvements were primarily related to hypertrophic muscular adaptations.
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P &lt; 5 x 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P &lt; 5 x 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
  • Korhonen, Marko, et al. (författare)
  • Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology. - 8750-7587 .- 1522-1601. ; 101:3, s. 906-917
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis of 18- to 84-yr-old male sprinters (n = 91). Fiber-type distribution, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content were identified using ATPase histochemistry and SDS-PAGE. Specific tension and maximum shortening velocity (V-o) were determined in 144 single skinned fibers from younger (18-33 yr, n = 8) and older (53-77 yr, n = 9) runners. Force-time characteristics of the knee extensors were determined by using isometric contraction. The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was unchanged with age, whereas that of type II fibers was reduced (P &lt; 0.001). With age there was an increased MHC I (P &lt; 0.01) and reduced MHC IIx isoform content (P &lt; 0.05) but no differences in MHC IIa. Specific tension of type I and IIa MHC fibers did not differ between younger and older subjects. V-o of fibers expressing type I MHC was lower (P &lt; 0.05) in older than in younger subjects, but there was no difference in V-o of type IIa MHC fibers. An aging-related decline of maximal isometric force (P &lt; 0.001) and normalized rate of force development (P &lt; 0.05) of knee extensors was observed. Normalized rate of force development was positively associated with MHC II (P &lt; 0.05). The sprint-trained athletes experienced the typical aging-related reduction in the size of fast fibers, a shift toward a slower MHC isoform profile, and a lower V-o of type I MHC fibers, which played a role in the decline in explosive force production. However, the muscle characteristics were preserved at a high level in the oldest runners, underlining the favorable impact of sprint exercise on aging muscle.
  • Leskinen, Tuija, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in muscle and adipose tissue gene expression and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the members of physical activity discordant twin pairs
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 5:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced cardio-metabolic risk.
  • Moayyeri, Alireza, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of heel bone properties: genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication in the GEFOS/GENOMOS consortium
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 23:11, s. 3054-3068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; n = 14 260), velocity of sound (VOS; n = 15 514) and BMD (n = 4566) in 13 discovery cohorts. Independent replication involved seven cohorts with GWA data (in silico n = 11 452) and new genotyping in 15 cohorts (de novo n = 24 902). In combined random effects, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had genome-wide significant (P < 5 x 10(-8)) associations with heel bone properties. Alongside SNPs within or near previously identified osteoporosis susceptibility genes including ESR1 (6q25.1: rs4869739, rs3020331, rs2982552), SPTBN1 (2p16.2: rs11898505), RSPO3 (6q22.33: rs7741021), WNT16 (7q31.31: rs2908007), DKK1 (10q21.1: rs7902708) and GPATCH1 (19q13.11: rs10416265), we identified a new locus on chromosome 11q14.2 (rs597319 close to TMEM135, a gene recently linked to osteoblastogenesis and longevity) significantly associated with both BUA and VOS (P < 8.23 x 10(-14)). In meta-analyses involving 25 cohorts with up to 14 985 fracture cases, six of 10 SNPs associated with heel bone properties at P < 5 x 10(-6) also had the expected direction of association with any fracture (P < 0.05), including three SNPs with P < 0.005: 6q22.33 (rs7741021), 7q31.31 (rs2908007) and 10q21.1 (rs7902708). In conclusion, this GWA study reveals the effect of several genes common to central DXA-derived BMD and heel ultrasound/DXA measures and points to a new genetic locus with potential implications for better understanding of osteoporosis pathophysiology.
  • Qaisar, Rizwan, et al. (författare)
  • Hormone replacement therapy improves contractile function and myonuclear organization of single muscle fibres from postmenopausal monozygotic female twin pairs
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - 0022-3751 .- 1469-7793. ; 591:9, s. 2333-2344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ageing is associated with a decline in muscle mass and strength leading to increased physical dependency in old age. Postmenopausal women experience a greater decline than men of similar age in parallel with the decrease in female sex steroid hormone production. We recruited six monozygous female twin pairs (5559 years old) where only one twin pair was on hormone replacement therapy (HRT use = 7.8 +/- 4.3 years) to investigate the association of HRT with the cytoplasmic volume supported by individual myonuclei (myonuclear domain (MND) size,) together with specific force at the single fibre level. HRT use was associated with a significantly smaller (approximate to 27%; P &lt; 0.05) mean MND size in muscle fibres expressing the type I but not the IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform. In comparison to non-users, higher specific force was recorded in HRT users both in muscle fibres expressing type I (approximate to 27%; P &lt; 0.05) and type IIa (approximate to 23%; P &lt; 0.05) MyHC isoforms. These differences were fibre-type dependent, i.e. the higher specific force in fast-twitch muscle fibres was primarily caused by higher force per cross-bridge while slow-twitch fibres relied on both a higher number and force per cross-bridge. HRT use had no effect on fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), velocity of unloaded shortening (V0) and relative proportion of MyHC isoforms. In conclusion, HRT appears to have significant positive effects on both regulation of muscle contraction and myonuclei organization in postmenopausal women.
  • Sillanpää, Elina, et al. (författare)
  • Leukocyte and Skeletal Muscle Telomere Length and Body Composition in Monozygotic Twin Pairs Discordant for Long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274. ; 20:2, s. 119-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen-based hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be associated with deceleration of cellular aging. We investigated whether long-term HRT has effects on leukocyte (LTL) or mean and minimum skeletal muscle telomere length (SMTL) in a design that controls for genotype and childhood environment. Associations between telomeres, body composition, and physical performance were also examined. Eleven monozygotic twin pairs (age 57.6 ± 1.8 years) discordant for HRT were studied. Mean duration of HRT use was 7.3 ± 3.7 years in the user sister, while their co-twins had never used HRT. LTL was measured by qPCR and SMTLs by southern blot. Body and muscle composition were estimated by bioimpedance and computed tomography, respectively. Physical performance was measured by jumping height and grip strength. HRT users and non-users did not differ in LTL or mean or minimum SMTL. Within-pair correlations were high in LTL (r = 0.69, p = .020) and in mean (r = 0.74, p = .014) and minimum SMTL (r = 0.88, p = .001). Body composition and performance were better in users than non-users. In analyses of individuals, LTL was associated with BMI (r 2 = 0.30, p = .030), percentage total body (r 2 = 0.43, p = .014), and thigh (r 2 = 0.55, p = .004) fat, while minimum SMTL was associated with fat-free mass (r 2 = 0.27, p = .020) and thigh muscle area (r 2 = 0.42, p = .016). We found no associations between HRT use and telomere length. Longer LTLs were associated with lower total and regional fat, while longer minimum SMTLs were associated with higher fat-free mass and greater thigh muscle area. This suggests that telomeres measured from different tissues may have different associations with measures of body composition.
  • Wang, Qingju, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effects of sex hormones on peri- and endocortical bone surfaces in pubertal girls.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 91:1, s. 277-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: The role of sex steroids in bone growth in pubertal girls is not yet clear. Bone biomarkers are indicators of bone metabolic activity, but their value in predicting bone quality has not been studied in growing girls. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association of sex hormones and bone markers with bone geometry and density in pubertal girls. DESIGN: The study was designed as a 2-yr longitudinal study in pubertal girls. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 1- and 2-yr follow-ups. SETTING: The study was conducted in a university laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 258 10- to 13-yr-old healthy girls at the baseline participated. METHODS: Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to scan the left tibial shaft. Serum 17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), SHBG, osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b were assessed. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models with random effect. RESULTS: E2 was a positive predictor for total bone mineral density (BMD), cortical thickness, and a negative predictor for endocortical circumference but had no predictive value for total bone cross-sectional area or periosteal circumference. T was a positive predictor for total cross-sectional area and periosteal circumference as well as endocortical circumference, and a negative predictor for total BMD. OC was negatively correlated with cortical BMD (R2 = 0.325; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In pubertal girls, E2 and T have different influences on bone properties at the long bone shaft. The results suggest that, at the endocortical surface, E2 inhibits bone resorption during rapid growth, and later, after menarche, acts at higher concentrations to promote bone formation. At the periosteal surface, T promotes bone formation, whereas E2 does not affect it. In addition, OC might be used as a predictor of cortical BMD.
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