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Sökning: WFRF:(Alfoeldi Jessica)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 11
  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Alfoeldi, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomics as a tool to understand evolution and disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 23:7, s. 1063-1068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>When the human genome project started, the major challenge was how to sequence a 3 billion letter code in an organized and cost-effective manner. When completed, the project had laid the foundation for a huge variety of biomedical fields through the production of a complete human genome sequence, but also had driven the development of laboratory and analytical methods that could produce large amounts of sequencing data cheaply. These technological developments made possible the sequencing of many more vertebrate genomes, which have been necessary for the interpretation of the human genome. They have also enabled large-scale studies of vertebrate genome evolution, as well as comparative and human medicine. In this review, we give examples of evolutionary analysis using a wide variety of time frames-from the comparison of populations within a species to the comparison of species separated by at least 300 million years. Furthermore, we anticipate discoveries related to evolutionary mechanisms, adaptation, and disease to quickly accelerate in the coming years.</p>
2.
  • Alfoeldi, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 477:7366, s. 587-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The evolution of the amniotic egg was one of the great evolutionary innovations in the history of life, freeing vertebrates from an obligatory connection to water and thus permitting the conquest of terrestrial environments(1). Among amniotes, genome sequences are available for mammals and birds(2-4), but not for non-avian reptiles. Here we report the genome sequence of the North American green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. We find that A. carolinensis microchromosomes are highly syntenic with chicken microchromosomes, yet do not exhibit the high GC and low repeat content that are characteristic of avian microchromosomes(2). Also, A. carolinensis mobile elements are very young and diverse-more so than in any other sequenced amniote genome. The GC content of this lizard genome is also unusual in its homogeneity, unlike the regionally variable GC content found in mammals and birds(5). We describe and assign sequence to the previously unknown A. carolinensis X chromosome. Comparative gene analysis shows that amniote egg proteins have evolved significantly more rapidly than other proteins. An anole phylogeny resolves basal branches to illuminate the history of their repeated adaptive radiations.</p>
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3.
  • Amemiya, Chris T., et al. (författare)
  • The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 496:7445, s. 311-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The discovery of a living coelacanth specimen in 1938 was remarkable, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have become extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features. Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution.</p>
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4.
  • Braasch, Ingo, et al. (författare)
  • The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:4, s. 427-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization and development (mediated, for example, by Hox, ParaHox and microRNA genes). Numerous conserved noncoding elements (CNEs; often cis regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles for such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the sums of expression domains and expression levels for duplicated teleost genes often approximate the patterns and levels of expression for gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes and the function of human regulatory sequences.</p>
5.
  • Brawand, David, et al. (författare)
  • The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 513:7518, s. 375-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cichlid fishes are famous for large, diverse and replicated adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa. To understand themolecular mechanisms underlying cichlid phenotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five lineages of African cichlids: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), an ancestral lineage with low diversity; and four members of the East African lineage: Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher (older radiation, Lake Tanganyika), Metriaclima zebra (recent radiation, Lake Malawi), Pundamilia nyererei (very recent radiation, Lake Victoria), and Astatotilapia burtoni (riverine species around Lake Tanganyika). We found an excess of gene duplications in the East African lineage compared to tilapia and other teleosts, an abundance of non-coding element divergence, accelerated coding sequence evolution, expression divergence associated with transposable element insertions, and regulation by novel microRNAs. In addition, we analysed sequence data from sixty individuals representing six closely related species from Lake Victoria, and show genome-wide diversifying selection on coding and regulatory variants, some of which were recruited from ancient polymorphisms. We conclude that a number of molecular mechanisms shaped East African cichlid genomes, and that amassing of standing variation during periods of relaxed purifying selection may have been important in facilitating subsequent evolutionary diversification.</p>
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6.
  • Carneiro, Miguel, et al. (författare)
  • Rabbit genome analysis reveals a polygenic basis for phenotypic change during domestication
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 345:6200, s. 1074-1079
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The genetic changes underlying the initial steps of animal domestication are still poorly understood. We generated a high-quality reference genome for the rabbit and compared it to resequencing data from populations of wild and domestic rabbits. We identified more than 100 selective sweeps specific to domestic rabbits but only a relatively small number of fixed (or nearly fixed) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for derived alleles. SNPs with marked allele frequency differences between wild and domestic rabbits were enriched for conserved noncoding sites. Enrichment analyses suggest that genes affecting brain and neuronal development have often been targeted during domestication. We propose that because of a truly complex genetic background, tame behavior in rabbits and other domestic animals evolved by shifts in allele frequencies at many loci, rather than by critical changes at only a few domestication loci.</p>
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7.
  • Eckalbar, Walter L., et al. (författare)
  • Genome reannotation of the lizard Anolis carolinensis based on 14 adult and embryonic deep transcriptomes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 14, s. 49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, is a key species for both laboratory and field-based studies of evolutionary genetics, development, neurobiology, physiology, behavior, and ecology. As the first non-avian reptilian genome sequenced, A. carolinesis is also a prime reptilian model for comparison with other vertebrate genomes. The public databases of Ensembl and NCBI have provided a first generation gene annotation of the anole genome that relies primarily on sequence conservation with related species. A second generation annotation based on tissue-specific transcriptomes would provide a valuable resource for molecular studies. Results: Here we provide an annotation of the A. carolinensis genome based on de novo assembly of deep transcriptomes of 14 adult and embryonic tissues. This revised annotation describes 59,373 transcripts, compared to 16,533 and 18,939 currently for Ensembl and NCBI, and 22,962 predicted protein-coding genes. A key improvement in this revised annotation is coverage of untranslated region (UTR) sequences, with 79% and 59% of transcripts containing 5' and 3' UTRs, respectively. Gaps in genome sequence from the current A. carolinensis build (Anocar2.0) are highlighted by our identification of 16,542 unmapped transcripts, representing 6,695 orthologues, with less than 70% genomic coverage. Conclusions: Incorporation of tissue-specific transcriptome sequence into the A. carolinensis genome annotation has markedly improved its utility for comparative and functional studies. Increased UTR coverage allows for more accurate predicted protein sequence and regulatory analysis. This revised annotation also provides an atlas of gene expression specific to adult and embryonic tissues.</p>
8.
  • Foote, Andrew D., et al. (författare)
  • Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:3, s. 272-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.</p>
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9.
  • Höppner, Marc P., et al. (författare)
  • An Improved Canine Genome and a Comprehensive Catalogue of Coding Genes and Non-Coding Transcripts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:3, s. e91172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is a well-established model system for mapping trait and disease loci. While the original draft sequence was of good quality, gaps were abundant particularly in promoter regions of the genome, negatively impacting the annotation and study of candidate genes. Here, we present an improved genome build, canFam3.1, which includes 85 MB of novel sequence and now covers 99.8% of the euchromatic portion of the genome. We also present multiple RNA-Sequencing data sets from 10 different canine tissues to catalog similar to 175,000 expressed loci. While about 90% of the coding genes previously annotated by EnsEMBL have measurable expression in at least one sample, the number of transcript isoforms detected by our data expands the EnsEMBL annotations by a factor of four. Syntenic comparison with the human genome revealed an additional similar to 3,000 loci that are characterized as protein coding in human and were also expressed in the dog, suggesting that those were previously not annotated in the EnsEMBL canine gene set. In addition to,20,700 high-confidence protein coding loci, we found,4,600 antisense transcripts overlapping exons of protein coding genes, similar to 7,200 intergenic multi-exon transcripts without coding potential, likely candidates for long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and,11,000 transcripts were reported by two different library construction methods but did not fit any of the above categories. Of the lincRNAs, about 6,000 have no annotated orthologs in human or mouse. Functional analysis of two novel transcripts with shRNA in a mouse kidney cell line altered cell morphology and motility. All in all, we provide a much-improved annotation of the canine genome and suggest regulatory functions for several of the novel non-coding transcripts.</p>
10.
  • Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 478:7370, s. 476-482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering similar to 4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for similar to 60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate-and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.</p>
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