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1.
  • Alfredsson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Randomized comparison of early supplemental oxygen versus ambient air in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction : Sex-related outcomes from DETO2X-AMI
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 237, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI).Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex.Results: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P=.16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment.Conclusion: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age
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2.
  • Hedayati, E., et al. (författare)
  • Outcome and presentation of heart failure in breast cancer patients : Findings from a Swedish register-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. - : Oxford University Press. - 2058-5225 .- 2058-1742. ; 6:2, s. 147-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Heart failure (HF) patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) may have a higher risk of death, and different HF presentation and treatment than patients without BC.Methods and results: A total of 14 998 women with incident HF (iHF) or prevalent HF (pHF) enrolled in the Swedish HF Registry within and after 1 month since HF diagnosis, respectively, between 2008 and 2013. Patients were linked with the National Patient-, Cancer-, and Cause-of-Death Registry. Two hundred and ninety-four iHF and 338 pHF patients with BC were age-matched to 1470 iHF and 1690 pHF patients without BC. Comorbidity and treatment characteristics were compared using the χ2 tests for categories. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among HF patients with and without BC. In the pHF group, BC patients had less often myocardial infarction (21.6% vs. 28.6%, P < 0.01) and received less often aspirin (47.6% vs. 55.1%, P = 0.01), coronary revascularization (11.8% vs. 16.2%, P < 0.01), or device therapy (0.9% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.03). After median follow-up of 2 years, risk of all-cause mortality (iHF: HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.83-1.29 and pHF: HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.79-1.12), cardiovascular mortality (iHF: HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.71-1.24 and pHF: HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.10), and HF mortality (iHF: HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.34-1.90 and pHF: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.43-1.29) were similar for patients with and without BC in the iHF and pHF groups.Conclusion: Risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in HF patients did not differ by BC status. Differences in pre-existing myocardial infarction and HF treatment among pHF patients with and without BC may suggest differences in pathogenesis of HF. 
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3.
  • Hofmann, R., et al. (författare)
  • Routine Oxygen Therapy Does Not Improve Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction—Insights From the Randomized DETO2X-AMI Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 2297-055X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: After decades of ubiquitous oxygen therapy in all patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), recent guidelines are more restrictive based on lack of efficacy in contemporary trials evaluating hard clinical outcomes in patients without hypoxemia at baseline. However, no evidence regarding treatment effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) exists. In this study, we investigated the impact of routine oxygen supplementation on HRQoL 6–8 weeks after hospitalization with acute MI. Secondary objectives included analyses of MI subtypes, further adjustment for infarct size, and oxygen saturation at baseline and 1-year follow-up.Methods: In the DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6–12 h or ambient air. In this prespecified analysis, patients younger than 75 years of age with confirmed MI who had available HRQoL data by European Quality of Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) in the national registry were included. Primary endpoint was the EQ-5D index assessed by multivariate linear regression at 6–10 weeks after MI occurrence.Results: A total of 3,086 patients (median age 64, 22% female) were eligible, 1,518 allocated to oxygen and 1,568 to ambient air. We found no statistically significant effect of oxygen therapy on EQ-5D index (−0.01; 95% CI: −0.03–0.01; p = 0.23) or EQ-VAS score (−0.57; 95% CI: −1.88–0.75; p = 0.40) compared to ambient air after 6–10 weeks. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the treatment groups in EQ-5D dimensions. Results remained consistent across MI subtypes and at 1-year follow-up, including further adjustment for infarct size or oxygen saturation at baseline.Conclusions: Routine oxygen therapy provided to normoxemic patients with acute MI did not improve HRQoL up to 1 year after MI occurrence. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01787110. 
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4.
  • Jernberg, T., et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Effects of Oxygen Therapy on Death or Hospitalization for Heart Failure in Patients With Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 138:24, s. 2754-2762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In the DETO2X-AMI trial (Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction), we compared supplemental oxygen with ambient air in normoxemic patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction and found no significant survival benefit at 1 year. However, important secondary end points were not yet available. We now report the prespecified secondary end points cardiovascular death and the composite of all-cause death and hospitalization for heart failure. METHODS: In this pragmatic, registry-based randomized clinical trial, we used a nationwide quality registry for coronary care for trial procedures and evaluated end points through the Swedish population registry (mortality), the Swedish inpatient registry (heart failure), and cause of death registry (cardiovascular death). Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction and oxygen saturation of >= 90% were randomly assigned to receive either supplemental oxygen at 6 L/min for 6 to 12 hours delivered by open face mask or ambient air. RESULTS: A total of 6629 patients were enrolled. Acute heart failure treatment, left ventricular systolic function assessed by echocardiography, and infarct size measured by high-sensitive cardiac troponin T were similar in the 2 groups during the hospitalization period. All-cause death or hospitalization for heart failure within 1 year after randomization occurred in 8.0% of patients assigned to oxygen and in 7.9% of patients assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84-1.18; P=0.92). During long-term follow-up (median [range], 2.1 [1.0-3.7] years), the composite end point occurred in 11.2% of patients assigned to oxygen and in 10.8% of patients assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88-1.17; P=0.84), and cardiovascular death occurred in 5.2% of patients assigned to oxygen and in 4.8% assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87-1.33; P=0.52). The results were consistent across all predefined subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Routine use of supplemental oxygen in normoxemic patients with suspected myocardial infarction was not found to reduce the composite of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, or cardiovascular death within 1 year or during long-term follow-up.
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5.
  • Lindahl, B., et al. (författare)
  • Poor long-term prognosis in patients admitted with strong suspicion of acute myocardial infarction but discharged with another diagnosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Characteristics and prognosis of patients admitted with strong suspicion of myocardial infarction (MI) but discharged without an MI diagnosis are not well-described. Objectives: To compare background characteristics and cardiovascular outcomes in patients discharged with or without MI diagnosis. Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial compared 6629 patients with strong suspicion of MI randomized to oxygen or ambient air. The main composite end-point of this subgroup analysis was the incidence of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, heart failure (HF) or stroke during a follow-up of 2.1 years (median; range: 1–3.7 years) irrespective of randomized treatment. Results: 1619 (24%) received a non-MI discharge diagnosis, and 5010 patients (76%) were diagnosed with MI. Groups were similar in age, but non-MI patients were more commonly female and had more comorbidities. At thirty days, the incidence of the composite end-point was 2.8% (45 of 1619) in non-MI patients, compared to 5.0% (250 of 5010) in MI patients with lower incidences in all individual end-points. However, for the long-term follow-up, the incidence of the composite end-point increased in the non-MI patients to 17.7% (286 of 1619) as compared to 16.0% (804 of 5010) in MI patients, mainly driven by a higher incidence of all-cause death, stroke and HF. Conclusions: Patients admitted with a strong suspicion of MI but discharged with another diagnosis had more favourable outcomes in the short-term perspective, but from one year onwards, cardiovascular outcomes and death deteriorated to a worse long-term prognosis.
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6.
  • Venetsanos, D., et al. (författare)
  • Long term outcome after treatment of de novo coronary artery lesions using three different drug coated balloons
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 325, s. 30-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of three currently available drug coated balloons (DCB) for the treatment of de-novo coronary lesions. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry. Between 2009 and 2017, three currently available DCB brands used in the treatment of de novo lesions were included. Outcomes were clinically driven restenosis and target lesion thrombosis (TLT) (per device) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including death, myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization (per patient) at 4 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to adjust for differences. Results: We included 6715 lesions treated with DCBs, 4483 SeQuent® Please (S-DCB), 1071 IN.PACT Falcon (I-DCB) and 1161 Pantera® Lux (P-DCB), in 5670 patients. The mean DCB diameter was 2.4 mm. Bailout stenting occurred in 6.7% of lesions. Angiographic success was 98.5%. The overall cumulative rate of restenosis was 5.5% (299 events). The risk for reported restenosis did not significantly differ between I-DCB vs S-DCB, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69–1.34, P-DCB vs S-DCB aHR 0.88; 95% CI 0.63–1.23 and I-DCB vs P-DCB aHR 1.10; 95% CI 0.72–1.68. The cumulative risk for TLT was 0.8% in all three DCBs. The risk for MACE or individual components of MACE did not differ between the three patient-groups. Conclusion: In de novo coronary lesions, we found comparable long-term efficacy with three currently available DCB brands. DCB angioplasty was feasible with low risk for long-term restenosis and TLT. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
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7.
  • Venetsanos, D., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-related response to bivalirudin and unfractionated heparin in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention : A subgroup analysis of the VALIDATE-SWEDEHEART trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care.. - : Sage Publications. - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 8:6, s. 502-509
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Our aim was to study the impact of sex on anticoagulant treatment outcomes during percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction patients.METHODS: This study was a prespecified analysis of the Bivalirudin versus Heparin in ST-Segment and Non ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients on Modern Antiplatelet Therapy in the Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated according to Recommended Therapies Registry Trial (VALIDATE-SWEDEHEART) trial, in which patients with myocardial infarction were randomised to bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary outcome was the composite of death, myocardial infarction or major bleeding at 180 days.RESULTS: There was a lower risk of the primary outcome in women assigned to bivalirudin than to unfractionated heparin (13.6% vs 17.1%, hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval (0.60-1.00)) with no significant difference in men (11.8% vs 11.2%, hazard ratio 1.06 (0.89-1.26), p for interaction 0.05). The observed difference was primarily due to lower risk of major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition 2, 3 or 5) associated with bivalirudin in women (8.9% vs 11.8%, hazard ratio 0.74 (0.54-1.01)) but not in men (8.5% vs 7.3%, hazard ratio 1.16 (0.94-1.43) in men, p for interaction 0.02). Conversely, no significant difference in the risk of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5 bleeding, associated with bivalirudin, was found in women 4.5% vs 5.4% (hazard ratio 0.84 (0.54-1.31)) or men 2.9% vs 2.1% (hazard ratio 1.36 (0.93-1.99)). Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2 bleeding occurred significantly less often in women assigned to bivalirudin than to unfractionated heparin. The risk of death or myocardial infarction did not significantly differ between randomised treatments in men or women.CONCLUSION: In women, bivalirudin was associated with a lower risk of adverse outcomes, compared to unfractionated heparin, primarily due to a significant reduction in Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2 bleeds.
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8.
  • Alabas, Oras A., et al. (författare)
  • Sex Differences in Treatments, Relative Survival, and Excess Mortality Following Acute Myocardial Infarction : National Cohort Study Using the SWEDEHEART Registry
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 6:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - This study assessed sex differences in treatments, all-cause mortality, relative survival, and excess mortality following acute myocardial infarction.Methods and Results - A population-based cohort of all hospitals providing acute myocardial infarction care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART [Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies]) from 2003 to 2013 was included in the analysis. Excess mortality rate ratios (EMRRs), adjusted for clinical characteristics and guideline-indicated treatments after matching by age, sex, and year to background mortality data, were estimated. Although there were no sex differences in all-cause mortality adjusted for age, year of hospitalization, and comorbidities for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI at 1 year (mortality rate ratio: 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.05] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-.99], respectively) and 5 years (mortality rate ratio: 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99-1.07] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-.99], respectively), excess mortality was higher among women compared with men for STEMI and non-STEMI at 1 year (EMRR: 1.89 [95% CI, 1.66-2.16] and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.16-1.24], respectively) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.60 [95% CI, 1.48-1.72] and 1.26 [95% CI, 1.21-1.32], respectively). After further adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments, excess mortality among women with non-STEMI was not significant at 1 year (EMRR: 1.01 [95% CI, 0.97-1.04]) and slightly higher at 5 years (EMRR: 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]). For STEMI, adjustment for treatments attenuated the excess mortality for women at 1 year (EMRR: 1.43 [95% CI, 1.26-1.62]) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.31 [95% CI, 1.19-1.43]).Conclusions - Women with acute myocardial infarction did not have statistically different all-cause mortality, but had higher excess mortality compared with men that was attenuated after adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments. This suggests that improved adherence to guideline recommendations for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction may reduce premature cardiovascular death among women.
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9.
  • Ekerstad, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Frailty is independently associated with 1-year mortality for elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Sage Publications. - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 21:10, s. 1216-1224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: For the large population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, it is crucial to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is denoting decreased physiological reserves and increased vulnerability. We analysed the manner in which the variable frailty is associated with 1-year outcomes for elderly non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients aged 75 years or older, with diagnosed NSTEMI were included at three centres, and clinical data including judgment of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail. By Cox regression analyses, frailty was found to be independently associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for cardiovascular risk and comorbid conditions (hazard ratio 4.3, 95% CI 2.4-7.8). The time to the first event was significantly shorter for frail patients than for nonfrail (34 days, 95% CI 10-58, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is strongly and independently associated with 1-year mortality. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an important risk prediction concept in regard to cardiovascular patients with complex needs.
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10.
  • Ekerstad, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Frailty Is Independently Associated With Short-Term Outcomes for Elderly Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - Dallas, USA : American Heart Association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 124:22, s. 2397-2404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: For the large and growing population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, it is important to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is an emerging concept in medicine denoting increased vulnerability and decreased physiological reserves. We analyzed the manner in which the variable frailty predicts short-term outcomes for elderly non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Methods and results: Patients aged ≥ 75 years, with diagnosed non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were included at 3 centers, and clinical data including judgment of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. The impact of the comorbid conditions on risk was quantified by the coronary artery disease-specific index. Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail. By multiple logistic regression, frailty was found to be strongly and independently associated with risk for the primary composite outcome (death from any cause, myocardial reinfarction, revascularization due to ischemia, hospitalization for any cause, major bleeding, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and need for dialysis up to 1 month after inclusion) (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.7) in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-16.8), and 1-month mortality (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-13.0). Conclusions: Frailty is strongly and independently associated with in-hospital mortality, 1-month mortality, prolonged hospital care, and the primary composite outcome. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an ultimate risk prediciton concept in regard to cardiovascular patients with complex needs.
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