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  • Silventoinen, K., et al. (författare)
  • The CODATwins Project : The current status and recent findings of COllaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 22:6, s. 800-808
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural-geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status. 
  • Gong, T., et al. (författare)
  • Perinatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and autism spectrum disorders
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environ Health Perspect. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0091-6765. ; 125:1, s. 119-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies from the United States indicate that exposure to air pollution in early life is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children, but the evidence is not consistent with European data. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between exposure to air pollution from road traffic and the risk of ASD in children, with careful adjustment for socioeconomic and other confounders. Method: Children born and residing in Stockholm, Sweden, during 1993–2007 with an ASD diagnosis were identified through multiple health registers and classified as cases (n = 5,136). A randomly selected sample of 18,237 children from the same study base constituted controls. Levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) from road traffic were estimated at residential addresses during mother’s pregnancy and the child’s first year of life by dispersion models. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ASD with or without intellectual disability (ID) were estimated using logistic regression models after conditioning on municipality and calendar year of birth as well as adjustment for potential confounders. Result: Air pollution exposure during the prenatal period was not associated with ASD overall (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.15 per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10 and OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.10 per 20-μg/m3 increase in NOx during mother’s pregnancy). Similar results were seen for exposure during the first year of life, and for ASD in combination with ID. An inverse association between air pollution exposure and ASD risk was observed among children of mothers who moved to a new residence during pregnancy. Conclusion: Early-life exposure to low levels of NOx and PM10 from road traffic does not appear to increase the risk of ASD.
  • Javaras, K N, et al. (författare)
  • Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 47:3, s. 576-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence.METHOD: Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history.RESULTS: Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED.CONCLUSIONS: In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.
  • Sujan, Ayesha C., et al. (författare)
  • A Genetically Informed Study of the Associations Between Maternal Age at Childbearing and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Behavior Genetics. - New York, USA : Springer. - 0001-8244 .- 1573-3297. ; 46:3, s. 431-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined associations of maternal age at childbearing (MAC) with gestational age and fetal growth (i.e., birth weight adjusting for gestational age), using two genetically informed designs (cousin and sibling comparisons) and data from two cohorts, a population-based Swedish sample and a nationally representative United States sample. We also conducted sensitivity analyses to test limitations of the designs. The findings were consistent across samples and suggested that, associations observed in the population between younger MAC and shorter gestational age were confounded by shared familial factors; however, associations of advanced MAC with shorter gestational age remained robust after accounting for shared familial factors. In contrast to the gestational age findings, neither early nor advanced MAC was associated with lower fetal growth after accounting for shared familial factors. Given certain assumptions, these findings provide support for a causal association between advanced MAC and shorter gestational age. The results also suggest that there are not causal associations between early MAC and shorter gestational age, between early MAC and lower fetal growth, and between advanced MAC and lower fetal growth.
  • Ullemar, V., et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of Adolescents' Consent to Use Health Records for Research and Results from Data Collection in a Swedish Twin Cohort
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1832-4274. ; 18:3, s. 256-265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Non-random selection into a study population due to differences between consenters and non-consenters may introduce participation bias. Past investigations of factors predicting consent to collection of medical health records for research imply that age, sex, health status, and education are of importance for participation, but disagree on the direction of effects. Very little is known about influences on consent from adolescents. Methods: Two cohorts of Swedish 15-year-old twins (total n = 4,611) previously invited to the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) responded to a questionnaire with information on sex, individual's health, height, weight, and parental factors. The questionnaire included a question for consent to collection of medical health records. Predictors for consent were analyzed using logistic regression. Additionally, regional differences in the collection of health records of consenters were evaluated. Results: Males were significantly less likely to consent compared to females (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.85). The twin siblings' decision to consent was strongly associated with consent (OR 10.9, 95% CI 8.76-13.5), and individuals whose parents had responded to the original CATSS study were more likely to consent to record collection at age 15 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.81-2.75). Results of the subsequent collection of consenters' medical health records varied between geographical regions of Sweden. Conclusion: We identified several predictors for adolescents' consent to collection of their medical health records. Further selection was introduced through the subsequent record collection. Whether this will induce participation bias in future studies depends on the research questions' relationship to the identified predictors.
  • Mataix-Cols, D., et al. (författare)
  • A total-population multigenerational family clustering study of autoimmune diseases in obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette's/chronic tic disorders
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 23:7, s. 1652-1658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's/chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD) with autoimmune diseases (ADs) is uncertain. In this nationwide study, we sought to clarify the patterns of comorbidity and familial clustering of a broad range of ADs in individuals with OCD, individuals with TD/CTD and their biological relatives. From a birth cohort of 7 465 455 individuals born in Sweden between 1940 and 2007, we identified 30 082 OCD and 7279 TD/CTD cases in the National Patient Register and followed them up to 31 December 2013. The risk of 40 ADs was evaluated in individuals with OCD, individuals with TD/CTD and their first- (siblings, mothers, fathers), second- (half siblings) and third-degree (cousins) relatives, compared with population controls. Individuals with OCD and TD/CTD had increased comorbidity with any AD (43% and 36%, respectively) and many individual ADs. The risk of any AD and several individual ADs was consistently higher among first-degree relatives than among second- and third-degree relatives of OCD and TD/CTD probands. The risk of ADs was very similar in mothers, fathers and siblings of OCD probands, whereas it tended to be higher in mothers and fathers of TD/CTD probands (compared with siblings). The results suggest a familial link between ADs in general (that is, not limited to Streptococcus-related conditions) and both OCD and TD/CTD. Additional mother-specific factors, such as the placental transmission of antibodies, cannot be fully ruled out, particularly in TD/CTD.
  • Mustelin, L., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - Stockholm : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 136:2, s. 156-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. Method: All individuals born 1984–2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989–1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. Results: The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. Conclusion: The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care.
  • Gong, Tong, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to air pollution from traffic and neurodevelopmental disorders in Swedish twins.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1832-4274. ; 17:6, s. 553-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders in children, but the role of pre- and postnatal exposure has not been elucidated.
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