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  • Brew, Bronwyn K., et al. (författare)
  • Using fathers as a negative control exposure to test the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis : A case study on maternal distress and offspring asthma using Swedish register data
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 45:17, s. 36-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis (DOHaD) studies are often observational in nature and are therefore prone to biases from loss to follow-up and unmeasured confounding. Register-based studies can reduce these issues since they allow almost complete follow-up and provide information on fathers that can be used in a negative control analysis to assess the impact of unmeasured confounding.Aim: The aim of this study was to propose a causal model for testing DOHaD using paternal exposure as a negative control, and its application to maternal distress in pregnancy and offspring asthma.Methods: A causal diagram including shared and parent-specific measured and unmeasured confounders for maternal (fetal) and paternal exposures is proposed. The case study consisted of all children born in Sweden from July 2006 to December 2008 (n=254,150). Information about childhood asthma, parental distress and covariates was obtained from the Swedish national health registers. Associations between maternal and paternal distress during pregnancy and offspring asthma at age five years were assessed separately and with mutual adjustment for the other parent's distress measure, as well as for shared confounders.Results: Maternal distress during pregnancy was associated with offspring asthma risk; mutually adjusted odds ratio (OR) (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.23, 1.43). The mutually adjusted paternal distress-offspring asthma analysis (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.97, 1.13) indicated no evidence for unmeasured confounding shared by the mother and father.Conclusions: Using paternal exposure in a negative control model to test the robustness of fetal programming hypotheses can be a relatively simple extension of conventional observational studies but limitations need to be considered.
  • Butwicka, Agnieszka, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Risk for Substance Use-Related Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders : A Population-Based Cohort Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - New York, USA : Springer. - 0162-3257 .- 1573-3432. ; 47:1, s. 80-89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or intellectual disability, was related to a doubled risk of substance use-related problems. The risk of substance use-related problems was the highest among individuals with ASD and ADHD. Further, risks of substance use-related problems were increased among full siblings of ASD probands, half-siblings and parents. We conclude that ASD is a risk factor for substance use-related problems. The elevated risks among relatives of probands with ASD suggest shared familial (genetic and/or shared environmental) liability.
  • Cederlöf, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Nationwide population-based cohort study of psychiatric disorders in individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or hypermobility syndrome and their siblings
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To assess the risk of psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and hypermobility syndrome.Methods: Nationwide population-based matched cohort study. EDS, hypermobility syndrome and psychiatric disorders were identified through Swedish national registries. Individuals with EDS (n = 1,771) were matched with comparison individuals (n = 17,710). Further, siblings to individuals with EDS who did not have an EDS diagnosis themselves were compared with matched comparison siblings. Using conditional logistic regression, risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, attempted suicide, suicide and schizophrenia were estimated. The same analyses were conducted in individuals with hypermobility syndrome (n = 10,019) and their siblings.Results: EDS was associated with ASD: risk ratio (RR) 7.4, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 5.2-10.7; bipolar disorder: RR 2.7, CI 1.5-4.7; ADHD: RR 5.6, CI 4.2-7.4; depression: RR 3.4, 95 % CI 2.9-4.1; and attempted suicide: RR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.7-2.7, but not with suicide or schizophrenia. EDS siblings were at increased risk of ADHD: RR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.4-3.3; depression: RR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1-1.8; and suicide attempt: RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.4-2.3. Similar results were observed for individuals with hypermobility syndrome and their siblings.Conclusions: Individuals with EDS and hypermobility syndrome are at increased risks of being diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. These risk increases may have a genetic and/or early environmental background as suggested by evidence showing that siblings to patients have elevated risks of certain psychiatric disorders.
  • Chen, Ruoqing, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children without parental cancer, children with parental cancer had a higher rate of hospital contact for injury during the first year after parental cancer diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR]=1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.22-1.33), especially when the parent had a comorbid psychiatric disorder after cancer diagnosis (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.08-1.85). The rate increment declined during the second and third year after parental cancer diagnosis (HR=1.10, 95% CI=1.07-1.14) and became null afterwards (HR=1.01, 95% CI=0.99-1.03). Children with parental cancer also had a higher rate of repeated injuries than the other children (HR=1.13, 95% CI= 1.12-1.15). Given the high rate of injury among children in the general population, our findings may have important public health implications.
  • Class, Quetzal A., et al. (författare)
  • Outcome-dependent associations between short interpregnancy interval and offspring psychological and educational problems : a population-based quasi-experimental study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 47:4, s. 1159-1168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Causal interpretation of associations between short interpregnancy interval (the duration from the preceeding birth to the conception of the next-born index child) and the offspring's psychological and educational problems may be influenced by a failure to account for unmeasured confounding.Methods: Using population-based Swedish data from 1973-2009, we estimated the association between interpregnancy interval and outcomes [autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), severe mental illness, suicide attempt, criminality, substance-use problem and failing grades] while controlling for measured covariates. We then used cousin comparisons, post-birth intervals (the interval between the second-and third-born siblings to predict second-born outcomes) and sibling comparisons to assess the influence of unmeasured confounding. We included an exploratory analysis of long interpregnancy interval.Results: Interpregnancy intervals of 0-5 and 6-11 months were associated with higher odds of outcomes in cohort analyses. Magnitudes of association were attenuated following adjustment for measured covariates. Associations were eliminated for ADHD, severe mental illness and failing grades, but maintained magnitude for ASD, suicide attempt, criminality and substance-use problem in cousin comparisons. Post-birth interpregnancy interval and sibling comparisons suggested some familial confounding. Associations did not persist across models of long interpregnancy interval.Conclusions: Attenuation of the association in cousin comparisons and comparable post-birth interval associations suggests that familial genetic or environmental confounding accounts for a majority of the association for ADHD, severe mental illness and failing grades. Modest associations appear independently of covariates for ASD, suicide attempt, criminality and substance-use problem. Post-birth analyses and sibling comparisons, however, show some confounding in these associations.
  • Gong, Tong, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to air pollution from traffic and neurodevelopmental disorders in Swedish twins.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1832-4274. ; 17:6, s. 553-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders in children, but the role of pre- and postnatal exposure has not been elucidated.
  • Lu, Yi, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Medication Use and Performance on Higher Education Entrance Tests in Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 74:8, s. 815-822
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for academic problems. Pharmacologic treatment is effective in reducing the core symptoms of ADHD, but it is unclear whether it helps to improve academic outcomes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the use of ADHD medication and performance on higher education entrance tests in individuals with ADHD.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study observed 61 640 individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013. Records of their pharmacologic treatment were extracted from Swedish national registers along with data from the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test. Using a within-patient design, test scores when patients were taking medication for ADHD were compared with scores when they were not taking such medication. Data analysis was performed from November 24, 2015, to November 4, 2016.EXPOSURES: Periods with and without ADHD medication use. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Scores from the higher education entrance examination (score range, 1-200 points).RESULTS: Among 930 individuals (493 males and 437 females; mean [SD] age, 22.2 [3.2] years) who had taken multiple entrance tests (n = 2524) and used ADHD medications intermittently, the test scores were a mean of 4.80 points higher (95% CI, 2.26-7.34; P<.001) during periods they were taking medication vs nonmedicated periods, after adjusting for age and practice effects. Similar associations between ADHD medication use and test scores were detected in sensitivity analyses.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Individuals with ADHD had higher scores on the higher education entrance tests during periods they were taking ADHD medication vs nonmedicated periods. These findings suggest that ADHD medications may help ameliorate educationally relevant outcomes in individuals with ADHD.
  • Ludvigsson, J.F., et al. (författare)
  • Registers of the Swedish total population and their use in medical research
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The primary aim of the Swedish national population registration system is to obtain data that (1) reflect the composition, relationship and identities of the Swedish population and (2) can be used as the basis for correct decisions and measures by government and other regulatory authorities. For this purpose, Sweden has established two population registers: (1) The Population Register, maintained by the Swedish National Tax Agency ("Folkbokforingsregistret"); and (2) The Total Population Register (TPR) maintained by the government agency Statistics Sweden ("Registret over totalbefolkningen"). The registers contain data on life events including birth, death, name change, marital status, family relationships and migration within Sweden as well as to and from other countries. Updates are transmitted daily from the Tax Agency to the TPR. In this paper we describe the two population registers and analyse their strengths and weaknesses. Virtually 100 % of births and deaths, 95 % of immigrations and 91 % of emigrations are reported to the Population Registers within 30 days and with a higher proportion over time. The over-coverage of the TPR, which is primarily due to underreported emigration data, has been estimated at up to 0.5 % of the Swedish population. Through the personal identity number, assigned to all residents staying at least 1 year in Sweden, data from the TPR can be used for medical research purposes, including family design studies since each individual can be linked to his or her parents, siblings and offspring. The TPR also allows for identification of general population controls, participants in cohort studies, as well as calculation of follow-up time.
  • Mustelin, L., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - Stockholm : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 136:2, s. 156-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. Method: All individuals born 1984–2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989–1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. Results: The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. Conclusion: The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care.
  • Sujan, Ayesha C., et al. (författare)
  • A Genetically Informed Study of the Associations Between Maternal Age at Childbearing and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Behavior Genetics. - New York, USA : Springer. - 0001-8244 .- 1573-3297. ; 46:3, s. 431-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined associations of maternal age at childbearing (MAC) with gestational age and fetal growth (i.e., birth weight adjusting for gestational age), using two genetically informed designs (cousin and sibling comparisons) and data from two cohorts, a population-based Swedish sample and a nationally representative United States sample. We also conducted sensitivity analyses to test limitations of the designs. The findings were consistent across samples and suggested that, associations observed in the population between younger MAC and shorter gestational age were confounded by shared familial factors; however, associations of advanced MAC with shorter gestational age remained robust after accounting for shared familial factors. In contrast to the gestational age findings, neither early nor advanced MAC was associated with lower fetal growth after accounting for shared familial factors. Given certain assumptions, these findings provide support for a causal association between advanced MAC and shorter gestational age. The results also suggest that there are not causal associations between early MAC and shorter gestational age, between early MAC and lower fetal growth, and between advanced MAC and lower fetal growth.
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