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Sökning: WFRF:(Alstermark Helena)

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1.
  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:6, s. 419-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. Methods The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Results Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Conclusions Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting.
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2.
  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • No GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 in parkinsonism patients in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - : Informa Healthcare. - 2167-8421. ; 14:1, s. 26-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An intronic GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Some amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients have signs of parkinsonism, and many parkinsonism patients develop dementia. In this study we examined if the hexanucleotide repeat expansion was present in parkinsonism patients, to clarify if there could be a relationship between the repeat expansion and disease. We studied the size of the hexanucleotide repeat expansion in a well defined population-based cohort of 135 Parkinson's disease patients and 39 patients with atypical parkinsonism and compared with 645 Swedish control subjects. We found no correlation between Parkinson's disease or atypical parkinsonism and the size of the GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9ORF72. In conclusion, this GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is not a cause of parkinsonism in the Swedish population.
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3.
  • Laumonnerie, Christophe, et al. (författare)
  • Commissural axonal corridors instruct neuronal migration in the mouse spinal cord
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unravelling how neurons are guided during vertebrate embryonic development has wide implications for understanding the assembly of the nervous system. During embryogenesis, migration of neuronal cell bodies and axons occurs simultaneously, but to what degree they influence each other's development remains obscure. We show here that within the mouse embryonic spinal cord, commissural axons bisect, delimit or preconfigure ventral interneuron cell body position. Furthermore, genetic disruption of commissural axons results in abnormal ventral interneuron cell body positioning. These data suggest that commissural axonal fascicles instruct cell body position by acting either as border landmarks (axon-restricted migration), which to our knowledge has not been previously addressed, or acting as cellular guides. This study in the developing spinal cord highlights an important function for the interaction of cell bodies and axons, and provides a conceptual proof of principle that is likely to have overarching implications for the development of neuronal architecture.
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4.
  • Nordin, Angelica, et al. (författare)
  • Extensive size variability of the GGGGCC expansion in C9orf72 in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues in 18 patients with ALS or FTD
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:11, s. 3133-3142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) among Caucasians. However, little is known about the variability of the GGGGCC expansion in different tissues and whether this correlates with the observed phenotype. Here, we used Southern blotting to estimate the size of hexanucleotide expansions in C9orf72 in neural and non-neural tissues from 18 autopsied ALS and FTD patients with repeat expansion in blood. Digitalization of the Southern blot images allowed comparison of repeat number, smear distribution and expansion band intensity between tissues and between patients. We found marked intra-individual variation of repeat number between tissues, whereas there was less variation within each tissue group. In two patients, the size variation between tissues was extreme, with repeat numbers below 100 in all studied non-neural tissues, whereas expansions in neural tissues were 20-40 times greater and in the same size range observed in neural tissues of the other 16 patients. The expansion pattern in different tissues could not distinguish between diagnostic groups and no correlation was found between expansion size in frontal lobe and occurrence of cognitive impairment. In ALS patients, a less number of repeats in the cerebellum and parietal lobe correlated with earlier age of onset and a larger number of repeats in the parietal lobe correlated with a more rapid progression. In 43 other individuals without repeat expansion in blood, we find that repeat sizes up to 15 are stable, as no size variation between blood, brain and spinal cord was found.
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5.
  • Nordin, Angelica, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence variations in C9orf72 downstream of the hexanucleotide repeat region and its effect on repeat-primed PCR interpretation : a large multinational screening study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - 2167-8421 .- 2167-9223. ; 18:3-4, s. 256-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large GGGGCC-repeat expansion mutation (HREM) in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of ALS and FTD in European populations. Sequence variations immediately downstream of the HREM region have previously been observed and have been suggested to be one reason for difficulties in interpreting RP-PCR data. Our objective was to determine the properties of these sequence variations with regard to prevalence, the range of variation, and effect on disease prognosis. We screened a multi-national cohort (n = 6981) for the HREM and samples with deviant RP-PCR curves were identified. The deviant samples were subsequently sequenced to determine sequence alteration. Our results show that in the USA and European cohorts (n = 6508) 10.7% carried the HREM and 3% had a sequence variant, while no HREM or sequence variants were observed in the Japanese cohort (n = 473). Sequence variations were more common on HREM alleles; however, certain population specific variants were associated with a non-expanded allele. In conclusion, we identified 38 different sequence variants, most located within the first 50 bp downstream of the HREM region. Furthermore, the presence of an HREM was found to be coupled to a lower age of onset and a shorter disease survival, while sequence variation did not have any correlation with these parameters.
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