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Sökning: WFRF:(Altieri A)

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1.
  • Tinetti, Giovanna, et al. (författare)
  • The EChO science case
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 40:2-3, s. 329-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune-all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10(-4) relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 mu m with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 mu m. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R similar to 300 for wavelengths less than 5 mu m and R similar to 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m(2) is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m(2) telescope, diffraction limited at 3 mu m has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300-3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright "benchmark" cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of > 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.
2.
  • Skrobot, Olivia A, et al. (författare)
  • Progress toward standardized diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment: Guidelines from the Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Consensus Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 14:3, s. 280-292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Progress in understanding and management of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been hampered by lack of consensus on diagnosis, reflecting the use of multiple different assessment protocols. A large multinational group of clinicians and researchers participated in a two-phase Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Consensus Study (VICCCS) to agree on principles (VICCCS-1) and protocols (VICCCS-2) for diagnosis of VCI. We present VICCCS-2. Methods: We used VICCCS-1 principles and published diagnostic guidelines as points of reference for an online Delphi survey aimed at achieving consensus on clinical diagnosis of VCI. Results: Six survey rounds comprising 65–79 participants agreed guidelines for diagnosis of VICCCS-revised mild and major forms of VCI and endorsed the National Institute of Neurological Disorders–Canadian Stroke Network neuropsychological assessment protocols and recommendations for imaging. Discussion: The VICCCS-2 suggests standardized use of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders–Canadian Stroke Network recommendations on neuropsychological and imaging assessment for diagnosis of VCI so as to promote research collaboration.
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3.
  • Skrobot, Olivia A, et al. (författare)
  • The Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Consensus Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 13:6, s. 624-633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Numerous diagnostic criteria have tried to tackle the variability in clinical manifestations and problematic diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) but none have been universally accepted. These criteria have not been readily comparable, impacting on clinical diagnosis rates and in turn prevalence estimates, research, and treatment.METHODS: The Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Consensus Study (VICCCS) involved participants (81% academic researchers) from 27 countries in an online Delphi consensus study. Participants reviewed previously proposed concepts to develop new guidelines.RESULTS: VICCCS had a mean of 122 (98-153) respondents across the study and a 67% threshold to represent consensus. VICCCS redefined VCI including classification of mild and major forms of VCI and subtypes. It proposes new standardized VCI-associated terminology and future research priorities to address gaps in current knowledge.DISCUSSION: VICCCS proposes a consensus-based updated conceptualization of VCI intended to facilitate standardization in research.
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4.
  • Pierre, M., et al. (författare)
  • The XXL survey : First results and future
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten. - Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. - 0004-6337 .- 1521-3994. ; 338:2-3, s. 334-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The XXL survey currently covers two 25 deg(2) patches with XMM observations of similar to 10 ks. We summarize the scientific results associated with the first release of the XXL dataset, which occurred in mid-2016. We review several arguments for increasing the survey depth to 40 ks during the next decade of XMM operations. X-ray (z < 2) cluster, (z < 4) active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cosmic background survey science will then benefit from an extraordinary data reservoir. This, combined with deep multi-lambda observations, will lead to solid standalone cosmological constraints and provide a wealth of information on the formation and evolution of AGN, clusters, and the X-ray background. In particular, it will offer a unique opportunity to pinpoint the z > 1 cluster density. It will eventually constitute a reference study and an ideal calibration field for the upcoming eROSITA and Euclid missions.
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5.
  • Pierre, M., et al. (författare)
  • The XXL Survey I. Scientific motivations - XMM-Newton observing plan - Follow-up observations and simulation programme
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The quest for the cosmological parameters that describe our universe continues to motivate the scientific community to undertake very large survey initiatives across the electromagnetic spectrum. Over the past two decades, the Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories have supported numerous studies of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the X-ray background. The present paper is the first in a series reporting results of the XXL-XMM survey; it comes at a time when the Planck mission results are being finalised. Aims. We present the XXL Survey, the largest XMM programme totaling some 6.9 Ms to date and involving an international consortium of roughly 100 members. The XXL Survey covers two extragalactic areas of 25 deg(2) each at a point-source sensitivity of similar to 5 x 10(-15) erg s(-1) cm(-2) in the [0.5-2] keV band (completeness limit). The survey's main goals are to provide constraints on the dark energy equation of state from the space-time distribution of clusters of galaxies and to serve as a pathfinder for future, wide-area X-ray missions. We review science objectives, including cluster studies, AGN evolution, and large-scale structure, that are being conducted with the support of approximately 30 follow-up programmes. Methods. We describe the 542 XMM observations along with the associated multi-lambda and numerical simulation programmes. We give a detailed account of the X-ray processing steps and describe innovative tools being developed for the cosmological analysis. Results. The paper provides a thorough evaluation of the X-ray data, including quality controls, photon statistics, exposure and background maps, and sky coverage. Source catalogue construction and multi-lambda associations are briefly described. This material will be the basis for the calculation of the cluster and AGN selection functions, critical elements of the cosmological and science analyses. Conclusions. The XXL multi-lambda data set will have a unique lasting legacy value for cosmological and extragalactic studies and will serve as a calibration resource for future dark energy studies with clusters and other X-ray selected sources. With the present article, we release the XMM XXL photon and smoothed images along with the corresponding exposure maps.
6.
  • Tinetti, G., et al. (författare)
  • A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Experimental Astronomy. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 46:1, s. 135-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of masses, sizes and orbits: from rocky Earth-like planets to large gas giants grazing the surface of their host star. However, the essential nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious: there is no known, discernible pattern linking the presence, size, or orbital parameters of a planet to the nature of its parent star. We have little idea whether the chemistry of a planet is linked to its formation environment, or whether the type of host star drives the physics and chemistry of the planet’s birth, and evolution. ARIEL was conceived to observe a large number (~1000) of transiting planets for statistical understanding, including gas giants, Neptunes, super-Earths and Earth-size planets around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the 1.25–7.8 μm spectral range and multiple narrow-band photometry in the optical. ARIEL will focus on warm and hot planets to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materials compared to their colder Solar System siblings. Said warm and hot atmospheres are expected to be more representative of the planetary bulk composition. Observations of these warm/hot exoplanets, and in particular of their elemental composition (especially C, O, N, S, Si), will allow the understanding of the early stages of planetary and atmospheric formation during the nebular phase and the following few million years. ARIEL will thus provide a representative picture of the chemical nature of the exoplanets and relate this directly to the type and chemical environment of the host star. ARIEL is designed as a dedicated survey mission for combined-light spectroscopy, capable of observing a large and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. Transit, eclipse and phase-curve spectroscopy methods, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allow us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of 10–100 part per million (ppm) relative to the star and, given the bright nature of targets, also allows more sophisticated techniques, such as eclipse mapping, to give a deeper insight into the nature of the atmosphere. These types of observations require a stable payload and satellite platform with broad, instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect many molecular species, probe the thermal structure, identify clouds and monitor the stellar activity. The wavelength range proposed covers all the expected major atmospheric gases from e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4 NH3, HCN, H2S through to the more exotic metallic compounds, such as TiO, VO, and condensed species. Simulations of ARIEL performance in conducting exoplanet surveys have been performed – using conservative estimates of mission performance and a full model of all significant noise sources in the measurement – using a list of potential ARIEL targets that incorporates the latest available exoplanet statistics. The conclusion at the end of the Phase A study, is that ARIEL – in line with the stated mission objectives – will be able to observe about 1000 exoplanets depending on the details of the adopted survey strategy, thus confirming the feasibility of the main science objectives.
7.
  • Boone, F., et al. (författare)
  • An extended Herschel drop-out source in the center of AS1063: A normal dusty galaxy at z = 6.1 or SZ substructures?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 559, s. L1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the course of our 870 μm APEX/LABOCA follow-up of the Herschel Lensing Survey we have detected a source in AS1063 (RXC J2248.7-4431) that has no counterparts in any of the Herschel PACS/SPIRE bands, it is a Herschel "drop-out" with S870=S500 ≥ 0:5. The 870 μm emission is extended and centered on the brightest cluster galaxy, suggesting either a multiply imaged background source or substructure in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich increment due to inhomogeneities in the hot cluster gas of this merging cluster. We discuss both interpretations with emphasis on the putative lensed source. Based on the observed properties and on our lens model we find that this source may be the first submillimeter galaxy (SMG) with a moderate far-infrared (FIR) luminosity (LFIR. © ESO 2013.
8.
  • Rex, M., et al. (författare)
  • The far-infrared/submillimeter properties of galaxies located behind the Bullet cluster
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) takes advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to sample a population of high-redshift galaxies which are too faint to be detected above the confusion limit of current far-infrared/submillimeter telescopes. Measurements from 100-500 mu m bracket the peaks of the far-infrared spectral energy distributions of these galaxies, characterizing their infrared luminosities and star formation rates. We introduce initial results from our science demonstration phase observations, directed toward the Bullet cluster (1E0657-56). By combining our observations with LABOCA 870 mu m and AzTEC 1.1 mm data we fully constrain the spectral energy distributions of 19 MIPS 24 mu m-selected galaxies which are located behind the cluster. We find that their colors are best fit using templates based on local galaxies with systematically lower infrared luminosities. This suggests that our sources are not like local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in which vigorous star formation is contained in a compact highly dust-obscured region. Instead, they appear to be scaled up versions of lower luminosity local galaxies with star formation occurring on larger physical scales.
9.
  • Guglielmo, V., et al. (författare)
  • The XXL Survey: XXII. the XXL-North spectrophotometric sample and galaxy stellar mass function in X-ray detected groups and clusters
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The fraction of galaxies bound in groups in the nearby Universe is high (50% at z ∼ 0). Systematic studies of galaxy properties in groups are important in order to improve our understanding of the evolution of galaxies and of the physical phenomena occurring within this environment. Aims. We have built a complete spectrophotometric sample of galaxies within X-ray detected, optically spectroscopically confirmed groups and clusters (G&C), covering a wide range of halo masses at z ≤ 0.6. Methods. In the context of the XXL survey, we analyse a sample of 164 G&C in the XXL-North region (XXL-N), at z ≤ 0.6, with a wide range of virial masses (1.24 × 1013 ≤ M500,scal(Mo) ≤ 6.63 × 1014) and X-ray luminosities ((2.27 × 1041 ≤ L500,scalXXL(erg-s-1) ≤ 2.15 × 1044)). The G&C are X-ray selected and spectroscopically confirmed. We describe the membership assignment and the spectroscopic completeness analysis, and compute stellar masses. As a first scientific exploitation of the sample, we study the dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) on global environment. Results. We present a spectrophotometric characterisation of the G&C and their galaxies. The final sample contains 132 G&C, 22 111 field galaxies and 2225 G&C galaxies with r-band magnitude <20. Of the G&C, 95% have at least three spectroscopic members, and 70% at least ten. The shape of the GSMF seems not to depend on environment (field versus G&C) or X-ray luminosity (used as a proxy for the virial mass of the system). These results are confirmed by the study of the correlation between mean stellar mass of G&C members and L500,scalXXL. We release the spectrophotometric catalogue of galaxies with all the quantities computed in this work. Conclusions. As a first homogeneous census of galaxies within X-ray spectroscopically confirmed G&C at these redshifts, this sample will allow environmental studies of the evolution of galaxy properties.
10.
  • Adami, C., et al. (författare)
  • The XXL Survey: XX. The 365 cluster catalogue
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. In the currently debated context of using clusters of galaxies as cosmological probes, the need for well-defined cluster samples is critical. Aims. The XXL Survey has been specifically designed to provide a well characterised sample of some 500 X-ray detected clusters suitable for cosmological studies. The main goal of present article is to make public and describe the properties of the cluster catalogue in its present state, as well as of associated catalogues of more specific objects such as super-clusters and fossil groups. Methods. Following from the publication of the hundred brightest XXL clusters, we now release a sample containing 365 clusters in total, down to a flux of a few 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band and in a 1′ aperture. This release contains the complete subset of clusters for which the selection function is well determined plus all X-ray clusters which are, to date, spectroscopically confirmed. In this paper, we give the details of the follow-up observations and explain the procedure adopted to validate the cluster spectroscopic redshifts. Considering the whole XXL cluster sample, we have provided two types of selection, both complete in a particular sense: one based on flux-morphology criteria, and an alternative based on the [0.5-2] keV flux within 1 arcmin of the cluster centre. We have also provided X-ray temperature measurements for 80% of the clusters having a flux larger than 9 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2. Results. Our cluster sample extends from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 1.2, with one cluster at z ∼ 2. Clusters were identified through a mean number of six spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. The largest number of confirmed spectroscopic members in a cluster is 41. Our updated luminosity function and luminosity-temperature relation are compatible with our previous determinations based on the 100 brightest clusters, but show smaller uncertainties. We also present an enlarged list of super-clusters and a sample of 18 possible fossil groups. Conclusions. This intermediate publication is the last before the final release of the complete XXL cluster catalogue when the ongoing C2 cluster spectroscopic follow-up is complete. It provides a unique inventory of medium-mass clusters over a 50 deg2 area out to z ∼ 1.
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