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1.
  • Proletov, Ian, et al. (författare)
  • Primary and secondary glomerulonephritides 1.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2385. ; 29 Suppl 3:May, s. 186-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Sarchiapone, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • EUDOR-A multi-centre research program : : A naturalistic, European Multi-centre Clinical study of EDOR Test in adult patients with primary depression
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-244X. ; 17:1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Electrodermal reactivity has been successfully used as indicator of interest, curiosity as well as depressive states. The measured reactivity depends on the quantity of sweat secreted by those eccrine sweat glands that are located in the hypodermis of palmar and plantar regions. Electrodermal hyporeactive individuals are those who show an unusual rapid habituation to identical non-significant stimuli. Previous findings suggested that electrodermal hyporeactivity has a high sensitivity and a high specificity for suicide. The aims of the present study are to test the effectiveness and the usefulness of the EDOR (ElectroDermal Orienting Reactivity) Test as a support in the suicide risk assessment of depressed patients and to assess the predictive value of electrodermal hyporeactivity, measured through the EDOR Test, for suicide and suicide attempt in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of depression. Methods and design: 1573 patients with a primary diagnosis of depression, whether currently depressed or in remission, have been recruited at 15 centres in 9 different European countries. Depressive symptomatology was evaluated through the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. Previous suicide attempts were registered and the suicide intent of the worst attempt was rated according to the first eight items of the Beck Suicide Intent Scale. The suicide risk was also assessed according to rules and traditions at the centre. The EDOR Test was finally performed. During the EDOR Test, two fingers are put on gold electrodes and direct current of 0.5 V is passed through the epidermis of the fingers according to standards. A moderately strong tone is presented through headphones now and then during the test. The electrodermal responses to the stimuli represent an increase in the conductance due to the increased number of filled sweat ducts that act as conductors through the electrically highly resistant epidermis. Each patient is followed up for one year in order to assess the occurrence of intentional self-harm. Discussion: Based on previous studies, expected results would be that patients realizing a suicide attempt with a strong intent or committing suicide should be electrodermally hyporeactive in most cases and non-hyporeactive patients should show only few indications of death intent or suicides. Trial registration: The German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00010082. Registered May 31st, 2016. Retrospectively registered.
3.
  • Murri, Martino Belvederi, et al. (författare)
  • Instrumental assessment of balance and gait in depression : A systematic review
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781 .- 1872-7123. ; 284
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Psychomotor symptoms of depression are understudied despite having a severe impact on patient outcomes. This review aims to summarize the evidence on motor features of depression assessed with instrumental procedures, and examine age-related differences. We included studies investigating posture, balance and gait ascertained with instrumental measurements among individuals with depressive symptoms or disorders. Studies on subjects with specific physical illnesses were excluded. Methodological quality was assessed with the Newcastle - Ottawa Scale (NOS) and PRISMA guidelines were followed. 33 studies (13 case-control, five cross-sectional, nine longitudinal and six intervention) with overall low-medium quality were included. Different instruments were employed to assess posture (e.g. digital cameras), balance (balance, stepping platform) or gait (e.g. Six-Minute-Walking Test, instrumented walkways). Results suggest that depression in adults is associated with significant impairments of posture, balance and gait. Motor abnormalities among depressed older adults may depend on the interplay of physical diseases, cognitive impairment and mood. Very few intervention studies measured motor symptoms as outcome. Available evidence suggests, however, that antidepressant drugs and physical exercise may be beneficial for motor abnormalities. Despite the lack of high-quality studies, instrumental assessments confirm the presence and importance of motor abnormalities in depression, with potential age-related differences in their pathophysiology.</p>
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4.
  • Sarchiapone, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • EUDOR-A multi-centre research program: A naturalistic, European Multi-centre Clinical study of EDOR Test in adult patients with primary depression
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1471-244X .- 1471-244X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Electrodermal reactivity has been successfully used as indicator of interest, curiosity as well as depressive states. The measured reactivity depends on the quantity of sweat secreted by those eccrine sweat glands that are located in the hypodermis of palmar and plantar regions. Electrodermal hyporeactive individuals are those who show an unusual rapid habituation to identical non-significant stimuli. Previous findings suggested that electrodermal hyporeactivity has a high sensitivity and a high specificity for suicide. The aims of the present study are to test the effectiveness and the usefulness of the EDOR (ElectroDermal Orienting Reactivity) Test as a support in the suicide risk assessment of depressed patients and to assess the predictive value of electrodermal hyporeactivity, measured through the EDOR Test, for suicide and suicide attempt in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of depression. Methods and design: 1573 patients with a primary diagnosis of depression, whether currently depressed or in remission, have been recruited at 15 centres in 9 different European countries. Depressive symptomatology was evaluated through the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. Previous suicide attempts were registered and the suicide intent of the worst attempt was rated according to the first eight items of the Beck Suicide Intent Scale. The suicide risk was also assessed according to rules and traditions at the centre. The EDOR Test was finally performed. During the EDOR Test, two fingers are put on gold electrodes and direct current of 0.5 V is passed through the epidermis of the fingers according to standards. A moderately strong tone is presented through headphones now and then during the test. The electrodermal responses to the stimuli represent an increase in the conductance due to the increased number of filled sweat ducts that act as conductors through the electrically highly resistant epidermis. Each patient is followed up for one year in order to assess the occurrence of intentional self-harm. Discussion: Based on previous studies, expected results would be that patients realizing a suicide attempt with a strong intent or committing suicide should be electrodermally hyporeactive in most cases and non-hyporeactive patients should show only few indications of death intent or suicides.</p>
5.
  • Serafini, Gianluca, et al. (författare)
  • Abnormalities in kynurenine pathway metabolism in treatment-resistant depression and suicidality : a systematic review
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets. - Bentham Science Publishers. - 1871-5273. ; 16:4, s. 440-453
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Treatment resistant depression (TRD) and suicidal behavior are among the most important public health problems and are commonly associated with significant disability and psychosocial impairment. Although there have been recent advances in identifying neurobiological correlates of these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Although the recent advances concerning the neurobiological determinants underlying these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Compared to non-suicidal subjects, higher mean concentrations of inflammatory mediators have been found in both the periphery and brain of individuals at risk for suicide. Several lines of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation is accompanied by a dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in both TRD and suicidal individuals, resulting in an imbalance of neuroactive metabolites. In particular, neuroinflammation may trigger an increased production of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist quinolinic acid and a concomitant reduction of neuroprotective metabolites, potentially causing downstream effects in glutamatergic systems resulting in depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. This systematic review of the current literature is mainly aimed at summarizing the most important evidence pertaining to KP metabolism abnormalities in TRD and suicidal behavior. Targeting the KP enzymes may provide innovative approaches in the management of both TRD and suicidality.
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6.
  • Serafini, Gianluca, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropeptides : Active neuromodulators involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and major affective disorders
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Bioactive Natural Products: Chemistry and Biology. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 9783527337941 - 9783527684403 ; s. 409-442
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropeptides, protein-like molecules used for direct communication between neurons, may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior. This chapter aims to critically review the current literature on associations between neuropeptides, major affective disorders, and suicidal behavior. Most studies included in this overview reported an association between suicidality and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF nerve growth factor inducible (VGF), cholecystokinin (CCK), orexin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY). It has been suggested that these molecules play a key role in many biological functions and act as important neuromodulators of emotional processing. The majority of the studies reviewed in this chapter found that suicidal subjects display higher mean concentrations of various neuropeptides compared to control subjects although depressed patients and suicide completers may also display lower NPY levels throughout the brain compared to healthy controls or individuals deceased from causes other than suicide. In addition, some studies have reported that orexin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels are lower in suicidal patients. In spite of these cross-sectional reports, a causal link between neuropeptide dysregulation and suicidality cannot be determined. The main implications of the studies that are included in the present chapter are critically analyzed and discussed.
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