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  • Horst, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Compound-specific bromine isotope analysis of methyl bromide using gas chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma multiple-collector mass spectrometry
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. - 0951-4198 .- 1097-0231. ; 25:17, s. 2425-2432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methyl bromide is the most important natural bromine contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion, yet there are still large uncertainties regarding quantification of its sources and sinks. The stable bromine isotope composition of CH(3)Br is potentially a powerful tool to apportion its sources and to study both its transport and its reactive fate. A novel compound-specific method to measure (81)Br/(79)Br isotope ratios in CH3Br using gas chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma multiple-collector mass spectrometry (GC/MCICPMS) was developed. Sample amounts of >40 ng could bemeasured with a precision of 0.1 parts per thousand (1 sigma, n=3). The method results are reproducible over the long term as shown with 36 analyses acquired over 3 months, yielding a standard deviation ( 1s) better than 0.4 parts per thousand. This new method demonstrates for the first time Br isotope ratio determination in gaseous brominated samples. It is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than previously existing isotope ratio mass spectrometry methods for Br isotope determination of other organobromines, thus allowing applications towards ambient atmospheric samples.
  • Rudberg, Ann-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • SARS-CoV-2 exposure, symptoms and seroprevalence in healthcare workers in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SARS-CoV-2 may pose an occupational health risk to healthcare workers. Here, we report the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, self-reported symptoms and occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers at a large acute care hospital in Sweden. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was 19.1% among the 2149 healthcare workers recruited between April 14th and May 8th 2020, which was higher than the reported regional seroprevalence during the same time period. Symptoms associated with seroprevalence were anosmia (odds ratio (OR) 28.4, 95% CI 20.6-39.5) and ageusia (OR 19.2, 95% CI 14.3-26.1). Seroprevalence was also associated with patient contact (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5) and covid-19 patient contact (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.2-5.3). These findings imply an occupational risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers. Continued measures are warranted to assure healthcare workers safety and reduce transmission from healthcare workers to patients and to the community. Healthcare workers may be at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than the general population. Here, the authors report 19% seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among 2,149 employees in a Swedish hospital. Seroprevalence was associated with patient contact and higher than the seroprevalence in the community in same time period.
  • Abreu, P, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the strange quark forward-backward asymmetry around the Z(0) peak
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C. - : SPRINGER VERLAG. - 1434-6044. ; 14:4, s. 613-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A precise measurement of the strange quark forward-backward asymmetry used 3.2 M multihadronic events around the Z(0) peak collected by the DELPHI experiment from 1992 to 1995. The ring imaging Cherenkov detectors in the barrel and end-cap regions identif
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
  • Andersson, August, et al. (författare)
  • (14)C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 45:1, s. 215-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line (14)C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 degrees C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass (f(biomass)) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in (14)C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The f(biomass) appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent (14)C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.
  • Andersson, August (författare)
  • A Model for the Spectral Dependence of Aerosol Sunlight Absorption
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry. - 2472-3452. ; 1:9, s. 533-539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sunlight-absorbing aerosols, e.g., black and brown carbon (BC and BrC), have a potentially large, but highly uncertain contribution to climate warming. The spectral dependence of the aerosol absorption in the visible and near-UV regime is almost universally well-described with a heuristic power law, where the exponent is termed the absorption Angstrom exponent. However, the 2 underlying physicochemical causes for this relation are unknown. Here, a model is presented that predicts the emergence of the power law spectral dependence and unifies the absorption behavior of BC and BrC. Building on the theory of light absorption in amorphous materials, the interaction between multiple functional groups upon absorption is predicted to be a key feature for this broad spectral dependence. This aerosol amorphous absorption model is in agreement with recent empirical findings and provides a conceptual basis for the additional research needed to better constrain the optical properties of light-absorbing aerosols and their environmental impact.
  • Andersson, August (författare)
  • A systematic examination of a random sampling strategy for source apportionment calculations
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 412, s. 232-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estimating the relative contributions from multiple potential sources of a specific component in a mixed environmental matrix is a general challenge in diverse fields such as atmospheric, environmental and earth sciences. Perhaps the most common strategy for tackling such problems is by setting up a system of linear equations for the fractional influence of different sources. Even though an algebraic solution of this approach is possible for the common situation with N + 1 sources and N source markers, such methodology introduces a bias, since it is implicitly assumed that the calculated fractions and the corresponding uncertainties are independent of the variability of the source distributions. Here, a random sampling (RS) strategy for accounting for such statistical bias is examined by investigating rationally designed synthetic data sets. This random sampling methodology is found to be robust and accurate with respect to reproducibility and predictability. This method is also compared to a numerical integration solution for a two-source situation where source variability also is included. A general observation from this examination is that the variability of the source profiles not only affects the calculated precision but also the mean/median source contributions.
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